Chapter 6 Notes.docx - Chapter 6 Creating a More Perfect...

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Chapter 6 – Creating a “More Perfect Union,” 1783 – 1800 1. Identify the strengths & weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation & explain how they contributed to the creation of a new U.S. Constitution in 1787 a. A loose alliance of states – the Articles of Confederation had created a loose alliance (“confederation”) of 13 independent states; America’s first national government had only one component, a one-house (unicameral) congress (no president, executive branch, separate national judiciary/court system) i. State legislatures appointed the members of the Confederation Congress & each state, regardless of size or population, had one vote ii. The Confederation Congress – weak in order to ensure that it didn’t violate the rights of the 13 states; had no power to enforce its own laws & ran up a budget deficit every year - Had little authority or resources - Could neither regulate trade between the state or with other nations, nor pay off the country’s large war debts - Could approve treaties with other nations but had no power to enforce their terms - Could call for the raising of an army, but couldn’t force men to fill the ranks b. The Articles of Confederation were important in supporting the political concept of “republicanism,” meaning that the American Republic would be governed by the authority of the people c. Land policy i. The Treaty of Paris doubled the size of the United States ii. Between 1784 – 1787, the Confederation Congress issued 3 major policies, called ordinances, providing for the orderly development of the vast territories west of the 13 original states in an effort to generate revenue for the national government - Land Ordinance of 1784 – Thomas Jefferson drafted the first federal land ordinance, which urged states to drop their competing claims to Indian-held territory west of the Appalachian Mountains, north of the Ohio River, & east of the Mississippi River, so that the unmapped area could be divided into as many as seventeen new states; when a western territory’s population equaled that of the smallest existing state, then that territory would be eligible for statehood Confederation Congress passed it after rejecting Jefferson’s proposal that slavery be banned from the new territories - Land Ordinance of 1785 – created by the Confederation Congress, outlined a plan of land surveys & sales that would stamp a rectangular pattern on what was called the Northwest Territory (later Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, & Wisconsin) Where Indian lands were purchased, or taken, they were divided into 6 mile square townships; each township
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was further divided into 36 one mile squares (640 acres) & each section divided into 4 farms The 640-acre sections of “public lands” were to be sold at auctions, with the proceeds going to the national treasury d. The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 – 3 rd major land policy created by the Confederation Congress, which outlined 2 key principles: i. The new western territories could become states that would be treated as equals rather than as colonies -
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