Population_Trends_in_Malaysia.pdf - Population Trends in...

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Population Trends in Malaysia: 1970-2010 Saharani Abdul Rashid a , Puzziawati Ab Ghani b and Noorizam Daud c a Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi Mara Pahang Lintasan Semarak, 26400 Bandar Jengka, Pahang, Malaysia b,c Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi Mara 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia Abstract. The size of population in Malaysia had reached 28.3 million in 2010 and is expected to increase to 38.6 million in the next 30 years. This demographic milestone that is causing renewed attention to the challenges caused by population growth. This paper looks at the last 40 years of changes in Malaysia population structure due to the changes in demographic phenomenon using data obtained from the Department of Statistics Malaysia. The principal finding of this research indicates that population structure in Malaysia had changed dramatically from the year 1970 to 2010. At the same time, Malaysia has completed its demographic transition in less than four decades. The fall in fertility and mortality rates have led to an improvement in the life expectancy of the population which has resulted an ageing population in Malaysia. Keywords: Demographic change, population structure, population growth, ageing population PACS: 89.65 Cd INTRODUCTION The growth of population is a very important event that occurs throughout the world. Its change is on a continuous basis and the numbers of population added to the world everyday are unprecedented and unparalleled in its consequences. According to the United Nations [1], the world population has increased rapidly over the twentieth century and by the end of the century, it is expected to increase by 3.7 billion, rising from 7.2 billion in mid-2013 to 10.9 billion by 2100. The growth rate has kept increasing about 2 percent per year since mid-20th century [2]. In addition, Lam [3] claimed that there is much to worry about in the coming decades, between 2011 and 2050 where the world will add 2 billion people. Malaysia is a country of diversity given its multi-racial, multi-cultural and multi-linguistic population. The 2010 Population and Housing Census of Malaysia conducted by Department of Statistics Malaysia (DOSM) reported that the distribution of ethnics comprised that Malays accounting about 63.1 percent of the population, Chinese is 24.6 percent, Indian is 7.3 percent and other Bumiputera is 4.3 per cent. While others, including non-citizens comprised 0.7 percent. The majority of the population is Muslim with the proportion of 61.3 percent, about 19.8 percent population embraced Buddhism, 9.2 percent Cristian, 6.3 percent Hinduism and the rest belonging to other religious groups. According to Heaton [4] and McQuillan [5], religion plays an important role in determining the fertility level. On the other hand, traditional family values have started to change slowly. Malaysia experienced demographic transition from an agricultural-based economy in early 19th century to knowledge-based economy in the mid of 1990s. The first stage of demographic transitions began between 1911 to 1927, then entered the second
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