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Study Guide for Unit 1: Cellular Response, Genetics, and Cancer Disease Terminology 1. What is the world health organization definition of health? 2. What are the etiologic factors that cause disease? 3. In terms of etiology, are most diseases caused by multiple or single factors? Explain. 4. Differentiate between congenital and acquired defects as causes of disease. Can  you give an example for each? 5. What are signs and symptoms? Can you give examples for each? 6. Differentiate between sequelae and complications. Can you give examples for each? How are these terms different than prognosis? 7. Differentiate between pathogenesis and clinical course. Be able to give an example  description for each. 8. What factors are involved in the diagnostic process? 9. What is meant by normal value? 10. Differentiate between the terms risk factor and etiology. Terms to know : Disease Pathophysiology Etiology Congenital Defects Acquired Defects Pathogenesis Clinical Manifestations Signs Symptoms Syndrome Complications Sequelae Morphology Histology Diagnosis Prognosis Normal Value Standardization Validity Reliability Sensitivity Specificity Predictive Value Clinical Course Acute Chronic Preclinical Subclinical Clinical Carrier Status Epidemiology incidence Prevalence Morbidity Mortality Risk Factors Cellular Responses 1. In general, how do cells respond to stress?  What are some examples of cellular  stress? 2. What is cellular adaptation? 3. Define: atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia. For each of these  cellular adaptations, list potential causes. 4. Define and describe intracellular accumulation. List examples of substances that can accumulate in cells. 5. Differentiate between metastatic and dystrophic calcification. 6. Define cell injury (degeneration). 7. What factors determine the severity of cell injury? 8. What are the major causes of cell injury and how do these generally affect the body? 1
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9. Describe in detail the cellular responses (hypoxia, free radical injury and impaired  calcium homeostasis) to injurious agents. 10. Differentiate between apoptosis and necrosis. 11. Describe the types of necrosis. (liquefaction necrosis, coagulative necrosis, caseous  necrosis, fat necrosis). 12. What is gangrene? 13. Differentiate between dry and wet gangrene. 14. What is gas gangrene? 15. In general, how is gangrene treated? 16. Name the current theories of cellular aging.
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