Module 6 Vocabulary.docx

Module 6 Vocabulary.docx - Module 6 Vocabulary 1 Cognition...

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Module 6 Vocabulary 1. Cognition- mental process that involves acquiring knowledge and comprehension. Cognition helps to better understand and comprehend situations at hand. 2. Concept- a mental grouping of similar things, events, and people that is used to understand situations. Concepts are designed in our brain when trying to understand relations between people and situations. 3. Prototype- original form of something that serves as a standard. A prototype is created to be set as an example in future references. 4. Algorithm- set of instructions to complete a task. Algorithms are used when solving diverse and difficult tasks. 5. Heuristic- mental shortcut that helps us make split decisions and solve problems quickly. Heuristics are very important when it comes to making choices at a moment’s notice. 6. Insight- when a solution to a problem appears without warning. Insight happens when life hits you with a surprise that you didn’t see coming, like hitting the lottery or finding your lost dog. 7. Confirmation bias- interpreting newly found data as confirmation of existing beliefs. Confirmation bias can sometimes skew your view of things and give invalid results in a test or experiment. 8. Fixation- unable to see things from a different perception. Fixation causes a state of tunnel vision and makes it almost impossible to change your viewpoint on the situation. 9. Mental set- framework for thinking about a problem. Mental set is important to help your brain develop information when setting it to solve a problem. 10. Functional fixedness- cognitive bias that limits a person to using an object in only a traditional manner. Functional fixedness happens when someone uses a hammer to hammer in nails rather than their shoe or a rock. 11. Representativeness heuristic- used when making judgements about probability of an event without certainty. Representativeness Heuristics can be used when making an educated in a math problem or science measurement. 12. Availability heuristic- a mental shortcut that relies on immediate examples that come to the mind when observing a concept. Availability Heuristics can be acronyms used to remember long formulas or statements. 13. Overconfidence- a bias in which a person’s subjective confidence in their judgements is greater than the calculated accuracy of those judgements. Overconfidence can greatly affect the tester’s responses to the data he receives and can potentially bias the data.
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14. Framing- people react differently to a situation based on how it is presented. Framing is very effective when trying to make someone look good or bad in a situation using different types of tone. 15. Creativity- where something new and valuable is formed. Creativity has moved technology along to where it is today, making it possible to do the amazing things we can with computers.
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  • Spring '17
  • Intelligence quotient, Lewis M. Terman

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