Unformatted text preview: A Brief History of the th 20 Century
Geoff Garrett IR 101, January 22, 2008 "The British may claim the nineteenth century by force, and the Chinese may cast a long shadow over the twenty-first, but the twentieth century belongs to the United States." Politics and Economics in the 20th Century
Scope of markets & democracy American power 1914 1945 1989 2001 18701918: US growing power, but isolationism Rank order of world power 1914 WWI: product of changing balance of power UK () > Germany () > Russia () > France () US on rise in econ terms, but isolationist & not in Europe German industrialization steel into warships Pres. Wilson won reelection in 1916 on: US & WWI German subs target American shipping & potential German aid to Mexico "He kept us out of Europe's war" WWI battle deaths 8.5m; casualties 37.5m US troops arrived in France, 6/25 1917 19191945: diabolical decades, reluctant US leadership The League of Nations a new world order, led by the US
Wilson the architect, but could not get Senate to ratify the US returns to isolationism Depression, protectionism, fascism
Why did they go together? WWII started 9/3 1939 Germany invaded Poland Dresden and Tokyo carpet bombing; Nagasaki US entered war following Pearl Harbor, 12/7 1941 16m battle deaths 19451973: US internationalism, of necessity Rank order of world power in 1945 The new internationalist world order US > USSR, but nukes on both sides UK, France, Germany, Italy, Japan all decimated) US free world leader overnight, by default But also Cold War & nuclear standoff UN (respect/protect sovereignty) IMF, World Bank, GATT (free trade + help those in trouble) Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, NATO MAD & containment wars (Korea, Vietnam) 19741989: the good times end Rank order of world power in 1985: US in trouble? Change in economic orthodoxy Military: Cold War standoff, at v. high prices for all OPEC & stagflation Econ: Germany and Japan no 2 & 3 economies, better model than US? US Politics: Watergate US returns to military isolationism Reagan/Thatcher: government is the problem not the solution; end of 1930s model (FDR/Keynes) No more Vietnams Reagan: US as "shining city on the hill" outspend the USSR into oblivion 19892001: let the good times roll! Rank order of world power in 2001 unparalleled US hegemony (military, econ, political, cultural) Russian basket case 10 years of Japanese recession economic costs of German unification A decade of American "new economy" prosperity Reagan was right, and "we won"! "it's the economy stupid!" Humanitarian intervention ... so long as no US troops killed Support Russia, bailout Mexico, engage China "Washington consensus" Free trade (WTO, APEC, NFTA) Bosnia & Kosovo vs. "black hawk down") Did "everything change" on 9/11/2001? ... ...
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