Final Study Guide, Year 1 (Cognitive [ALL], Biological [1], Sociocultural [1]).docx

Final Study Guide, Year 1 (Cognitive [ALL], Biological [1], Sociocultural [1]).docx

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COGNITIVE UNIT Topic 1 → Models of Memory Example Question #1: Contrast TWO models of memory. Intro : This essay will discuss the differences between the the multi-store model and the working memory model. While the Multi-Store and Working Memory models both describe memory as interconnected information stores that interact and transfer data through various processes, the two are very different when it comes to the functioning of short term memory. A memory model is an approximation of the cognitive process of memory for the purposes of comprehension and prediction. The multi-store model argues that memory consists of a number of separate locations in which information is stored, that memory is processed sequentially, that each memory store operates in a single uniform way, and suggests that sensory information from the world enters sensory memory, which is modality specific (related to different senses). The multi- store model views the visual and auditory stores as the most important. Memory refers to the process by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved. Declarative memory are facts and events that are consciously recalled, and has two subsets: episodic and semantic memory. Episodic memory includes specific events that occurred at a given time in a given place. Semantic memory includes general knowledge about facts and people. The Serial Position Effect suggests that people tend to better remember things if they are the first or last things presented in the list of things. Glanzer and Cunitz’s laboratory experiment was conducted in 1966 in order to investigate the recency effect in free recall. The independent variables were the immediate recall, 10 second delay, and 30 second delay groups and the dependent variable was the participants’ ability to recall the words. The 3 groups of participants were presented with the same list of 20 words and were expected to recall them as accurately as possible. The first group recalled the words immediately but the other groups recalled the words 10 or 30 seconds after counting backwards (delay). The first few words were more often recalled (primacy effect) which demonstrates that the participants find it easier to recall the first few words because they were able to rehearse the words, encoding them into their long-term memory. The last few words were also able to be recalled because of the recency effect, which explains that these words were still in short-term memory. In the variation, the last few words were not recalled because they were lost as a result of the delay and prevented the recency effect. One strength of the model is that it pioneered the new approach to memory where humans are seen as information processors. Another strength is that there is significant research to support the theory of separate memory stores - both in cognitive and biological studies. The multi-store model also has high predictive validity in the aspect it’s possible to make predictions based on the model and tp design experiments. However, its predictive power may also be low because it
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  • Fall '16
  • Todd Tatro
  • Work, Memory processes, participants, SCLT

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