AP European Exam Guide.pdf - Period 1(1450-1648...

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Period 1 (1450- 1648) Renaissance (1350-1550) Florence At the end of the 14th century, Florence was ruled by a mercantile elite (NOT Kings → its wealthy business families that are ruling Italy = Medici Most powerful city states: Florence Milan Naples Venice Papal States Pisa’s ports made the republic of Florence a sea power and major economic power of the West; between Europe and Asia Florentines expelled Medici family because they believed it was corrupt leadership But the Medici soon returned after Savonarola's failed control Italy would become a battleground between the Holy Roman Empire and France Renaissance created a hierarchy based on wealth Medici Family Giovanni de Medici First of the famous ruling Medici’s and considered founder of Medici family fortune Giovanni is considered to be the first prominent patron of the arts Giovanni was a leader not concentrated with politics, but rather the family fortune and arts Giovanni died in 1429 and his son Cosimo became head of the Medici family Cosimo de Medici Became head of powerful family bank, and amassed a fortune because he became banker to the pope His bank also spread to all the important financial markets throughout Europe Cosimo spend a considerable portion of his wealth on the arts Amassed the largest library in Europe Florence became cultural center of Europe Patronage/Banking Banking was a major source of power and income, and the Florentine gold coin, the florin was so reliable that it was the standard coinage of Europe Much of Florence’s wealth was dependent on the manufacture and trade of cloth, primarily wool But most people in Italy, they are poor Basis of financial support for the evolution of Renaissance artists was from the patronage of wealthy individuals and rulers
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Artists and Authors Filippo Brunelleschi Pioneer of architecture and engineering Used Math to discover principles of Linear Perspective and Vanishing Point in his drawings Brunelleschi’s Duomo → figured out the math to build a dome Humanism → knew if he worked hard and had faith he will be successful Individualism → wasn’t afraid to do what wanted to/thought Leonardo da Vinci Painter, Scientist, Writer, and Inventor (“flying machine” sketches) Paintings are well known because of their good use of angles, perspective, and a detailed background “Mona Lisa” → Realism Michelangelo Painter who also was a poet, architect, and sculptor Most of his work focuses on individuals who always give a sense of strength and ambition Painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel Statue of David → shows the individual Albrecht Durer Born in Nuremberg, Germany Revolutionized printmaking Introduced classical motifs into Northern art through his knowledge on Italian artists and German humanists
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