3Teleological Theories-Utilitarianism & Egoism[1].ppt.pptx

3Teleological Theories-Utilitarianism &...

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SUNWAY UNIVERSITY MORAL STUDIES
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TOPIC TWO: THEORIES AND SYSTEM OF VALUES The Social Morality Theory The Personality Virtue Theory Teleological Theories Deontological Theories
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Philosophers disagree with the Social Morality Theory and the Personality Virtue Theory They claim these theories are irrelevant to the ethics concept They rather relate ethics concept to end result in a normative act The standard on whether right or wrong does not refer to only moral rules They set many alternative standards which is divided into: - Teleological Theories - Deontological Theories
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ETHICAL TELEOLOGICAL THEORIES The word ‘teleo’ comes from the Greek word ‘telos’ which means goal or end Thus, teleology theory justifies actions or rules based on consequences or purpose that they bring It focuses on end result and is therefore also known as consequentialism
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There are two major consequentialist ethical theories: - utilitarianism - egoism They both agree that human beings ought to behave in ways that will bring about good consequences They differ in that they disagree on who should benefit from these consequences The utilitarians essentially say that human beings ought to act in the interest of all concerned , whereas the ethical egoists essentially say that human beings ought to act in their own self interest
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UTILITARIANISM Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) pioneered the Utilitarianism theory Utilitarianism originates from the word ‘utility’ meaning useful and beneficial things Thus, utilitarianism means actions are right if they are useful or for the greatest happiness of the greatest number of people Bentham introduced a new scientific method to analyse quantities of pleasure ie. Calculus of Pleasures or The Hedonist Calculus
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He alloted each factor with an analyzable value The judgement of a pleasure’s worth is measured in the following seven features: i) intensity (how strongly felt) ii) duration (how long pleasure lasts) iii) certainty (the degree of probability that it will occur) iv) propinquity (how soon it will be fulfilled) v) fecundity (does pleasure create additional pleasures) vi) purity (is pleasure accompanied by unpleasurable side-effects)
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vii) extent (the number of people who will experience the pleasure - a reflection of Bentham’s utilitarian commitment) Actions are considered moral when it produces maximum pleasure Actions are considered immoral when it produces pain and suffering
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However, the calculation process is complicated
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  • Spring '10
  • Paul
  • Utilitarianism, human beings, Ethical egoism, Personality Virtue Theory

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