Hydrology Exam.docx - Exam Part 1 5 short discussion...

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Exam - Part 1 – 5 short discussion questions (similar to prac) o Types Description (what it is) Comparison (e.g. compare 2 methods blah blah give their +&-) Synthesis and analysis (e.g. if there is no flow data; how can determine the accuracy in a specific situation) see sample questions on uts online - Part 2 – problem solution (similar to tutorial, maybe combined two solutions, need create own table) o Average Rainfall over catchment (Thiessen polygon method); Design rainfall event (lecture 3) o Average discharge of water in a cross section (lecture 4) o Loss model: Phi Index (lecture 5) o Time-area method (lecture 6) o Unit Hydrograph method (lecture 7) o Quantile flow estimation (lecture 2 & 8)
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Lecture 3 - Rainfall Mechanisms o Circulation of atmosphere Due to an imbalance in energy at the poles and at the equator Wind – Mechanism correct the imbalance Because of Rotation of the earth Coriolis forces are induced by the earth’s rotation Rotation of the earth around the sun Unequal land and sea areas between the two hemispheres unequal heating Local wind system High Low Warm Cool How global circulation affect climate around the world Rising air at 0-60 degrees Falling air at 30-90 degrees A surplus of solar radiation in middle section of graph (30-30) indicates less rainfall Conceptual model of the movement of energy from the equator to the poles. 0-30-60-90. Hence 30 degrees will be areas of low rainfall and likely to be associated with arid areas or deserts Cloud Seeding A form of weather modification, is the attempt to change the amt/type of precipitation that falls from clouds, by dispersing substances into the air serve as cloud condensation/ice nuclei, which alter the microphysical process with the cloud o Precipitation Falling of water to the earth Moist air lifted (Evaporation) pressure drops & air expand energy derived from adiabatic cooling (no transfer of heat/form other bodies) temperature drops & water vapour condenses forming clods of water droplet/iceparticles Present in: Dew (Water drops in the early morning), Drizzle (0.1-0.5 mm diameter), Rain (>0.5mm), Snow (hexagonal ice crystals), Sleet (grains of ice), Hail (balls of ice), Fog (suspension of small droplets impairing visibility, with humidity~100%), Mist (with visibility not impaired as much as in fog, humidity<100%) Discuss the process necessary for precipitation to occur For precipitation to occur, a lifting mechanism such as frontal or orographic lifting needs to occur to cause warm air to rise through cold air. The air then cools to dew point temperature and the water in the air will mass around a condensation nuclei such as ice or dust, and will increase in size. When this has surpassed a certain mass it will be too great to hold and fall as precipitation o Mechanisms Convection On hot days humid air heated near the land surface will rise cumolo- nimbus/thunderstorm cloud develop intense precipitation
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