Anatomy Study Guide.docx - Introduction to Anatomy and...

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Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology I. Anatomy- the study of the structure of body parts and their relationship to one another; it can be broken up into specialized branches A. Gross- able to see by eye B. Microscopic- cell and molecular level, through microscope C. Development- from fertilization to adulthood D. Other 1. Histology- study of the microscopic structures of tissues 2. Cytology- study of cells II. Physiology- the study of the function of the body’s machinery III. Gross Anatomy A. Regional- the study of all structures in one part of the body B. Systemic- gross anatomy study of the body studied by the system C. Surface- study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin Integumentary system Functions: Protection Excretion Blood reservoir (5%) Body temp regulation Metabolic functions Epidermis CELL TYPES Keratinocytes (produce keratin, connected by desmosomes) Desmosome- cell specialized for cell-to-cell adhesion Keratin- intracellular fibrous protein that gives hair, nails, and skin their hardness and waterproof abilities Melanocytes (produce melanin) Langerhans’ cells (help activate immune system, also called epidermal dendritic cells) Merkel Cells (function as touch receptors) LAYERS (Deep-->Superficial)
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Stratum basale Stratum spinosum Stratum granulosum Stratum lucidum Stratum corneum Dermis Papillary layer (areolar connective tissue, contains dermal papillae and dermal ridges) Reticular layer (dense irregular connective tissue, contains a lot of collagen) Skin color Melanin (skin color) Carotene (from food - yellow/orange) Hemoglobin (red) Abnormalities Cyanosis (not enough O2) erythema/redness (from fever, embarrassment, hypertension) pallor/blanching (from being angry/fear, anemia, low bp) Jaundice (liver disorder) Bronzing (addison's disease) Bruises (hematoma) Glands SWEAT GLANDS (sudoriferous) Eccrine sweat glands (palms, soles of feet, forehead) Larger merocrine (axillary/anogenital areas, produce sweat and fatty substance) Ceruminous (produce wax) Mammary (produce milk) OIL GLANDS (sebaceous) All over body except palms/soles Secrete sebum If blocked, they make a whitehead HAIR (dead keratinized cells produced by hair follicles, all over skin except palms/soles/lips) FUNCTIONS: Warmth Alerting the body of insects/anything else on skin Guarding the scalp
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MADE UP OF: Root sheath (the long part outside of epidermis) Hair bulb Sensory nerve endings around each bulb TYPES Vellus (thin hair in children and adult females) Terminal (thick hair such as eyebrows, scalp, etc) Hirsutism (hairiness in females) Hair baldness = alopecia SKIN CANCER (supressor gene: p53 - disabling this causes cancer) BASAL CELL Least malignant, slow growing, 99% cases solved SQUAMOUS CELL Arises from keratinocytes in stratum spinosum (scalp/ears/lower lip) Can be solved if treated or removed surgically
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