ANIMALS N HUMANS week 2.docx

ANIMALS N HUMANS week 2.docx - Lecture 5 monday 28/8 When...

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Lecture 5 monday 28/8 When volcanic ash spews and covered again and again creates fossils About 4 million years ago, australopithecus group. (human family tree) We DID not evolve from chimpanzees, we share a common ancestor BLUE era/phase of human evolution: about 4-2 million years ago. (australopithecus) We started walking upright (biped - bi=TWO) As landscapes started changing, instead of being high up in the trees, we started walking cus it was easier in the savanna woodlands Walking bipedally is more efficient, less exposed to solar radiation Using every source of food, scavenging everything, teeth start changing because it they had a mostly omnivorous diet Green era: emergence of Homo Early homo in africa 2-3mya More evidence of relying on meat Diet at 2.6 MYA- some meat in diet, indicated by teeth and cut marks on bones. Probably scavenging and opportunistic small game hunting or utilizing what was left over by larger killers. Homo much taller, longer limbs, bigger skull than blue era Green era brains are large bigger. Up to 1000 cm (vs blue at up to 450 cm) Skull starts to get bigger, jaw and teeth start shrinking Canine starts losing and shrinking. It was used for fighting, we dont need that anymore Use of fire started around 2mya (now can cook meat) Smaller molars indicative of use of fire- need less power to break down food. Whole jaw shrinks and changes the whole skull Gut starts changing. It used to be very long but starts changing and shrinking to a shorter gut Higher quality diet = smaller gut = larger brain Lecture 6 aug 30 Savanna hypothesis: the habitat of our ancestors provided key resources for survival and reproduction and as a result, human psychology evolved to find savanna-like settings aesthetically pleasing Habitat rich in biodiversity (open large views to spot danger, trees for protection and shade, water, variety of animal and plant foods) Would think that other animals have unconsciously have a preference for their habitat Young people like the savanna (when theyve lived in a forest) Older people pref forest or savanna (when they’ve lived in a forest) Went to nigeria (urban), still prefed savanna Did a test: found that subjects rated as most attractive in tree which has a canopy abd the trunk is low to the ground (easy to climb, large) Landscapes with large mammals are attractive Landscapes with water are attractive (pref for fresh, running streams, not calm stagnant pool where crocodiles and diseases live) Pref of park like settings (large open area) (less human build stuff) vs urban scenes Noise of running water is soothing Conclusions Human, regardless of origin and experience begin life with a pref for savanna like
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environments Attractive settings include critical resources (water, animals, and shelter) Pref likely evolved when humans made full use of savannas Kinds of empathy: emotional and cognitive
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