Fluids LN.docx - 1 Fluids(= liquids or gases Two...

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1 Fluids (= liquids or gases) Two definitions: , F = force perpendicular to area, [p] = N / m 2 = pascal (Pa) [ ] = kg / m 3 or gram / cm 3 = g / cm 3 , "specific gravity" = = 1 water 7.9 iron 11.9 Pb 2.7 Al _____________________________ * ___________________________________ Consider a bucket of water. What is the pressure at the bottom of the bucket due to the weight of the water ? Will now show that p = g h , More generally, , where h is the change in the depth below the surface of the water. This derivation assumes that density = constant, which it is for the case of water, be- cause water is incompressible. area A h = |  total mass m A h V = A h
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2 Air consists mostly of oxygen and nitrogen molecules. At room temperature, the molecules have thermal energy and are moving around rapidly (speed 400 m/s), colliding with each other and with every exposed surface. The pounding of the air molecules on a surface, like the pitter-pat of rain on the roof, adds up to a large force per area: p atm = 14.7 psi. At a given depth, a fluid exerts the same pressure in every direction.
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