CH_Database_Management.txt - Chapter 7 Managerial Overview...

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Chapter 7 Managerial Overview: Database Management LECTURE NOTES 7-1 Foundation Data Concepts: [Figure 7.2] A hierarchy of several levels of data has been devised that differentiates between different groupings, or elements, of data. Data are logically organized into: Character - A character is the most basic logical data element. It consists of a single alphabetic, numeric, or other symbol. Field - A field consists of a grouping of characters. A data field represents an attribute (a characteristic or quality) of some entity (object, person, place, or event). Record - Related fields of data are grouped to form a record. Thus, a record represents a collection of attributes that describe an entity. Fixed-length records contain a fixed number of fixed-length data fields. Variable-length records contain a variable number of fields and field lengths. File - A group of related records is known as a data file, or table. Files are frequently classified by the application for which they are primarily used, such as a payroll file or an inventory file, or the type of data they contain, such as a document file or a graphical image file. Files are also classified by their permanence, for example, a master file versus a transaction file. A transaction file would contain records of all transactions occurring during a period, whereas a master file contains all the permanent records. A history file is an obsolete transaction or master file retained for backup purposes or for long-term historical storage called archival storage. Database - A database is an integrated collection of logically related records or objects. A database consolidates records previously stored in separate files into a common pool of data records that provides data for many applications. The data stored in a database is independent of the application programs using it and of the type of secondary storage devices on which it is stored. 7-2 The Database Management Approach: The development of databases and database management software is the foundation of modern methods of managing organizational data. Database Management Approach - Is a method whereby data records and objects are consolidated into databases that can be accessed by many different application programs. Database Management System - (DBMS) serves as a software interface between users and databases. Thus, database management involves the use of database management software to control how databases are created, interrogated, and maintained to provide information needed by end users and their organizations.
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The database management approach involves three basic activities: 1. Updating and maintaining common databases to reflect new business transactions and other events requiring changes to an organization s records.
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