psych 212 exam 3.docx - END OF CHAPTER 7 Know the studies...

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END OF CHAPTER 7 Know the studies, implications and basics of symbolic gesturing (Linda Acredolo). What are the advantages of symbolic gesturing? Reduces frustration and builds trust Signs like “thirsty” (cup) and “hungry” (eat) babies can make their needs known Allows babies to share their world, info is shared, seeing the world through “baby’s eyes” Ex: happy, sad, afraid? Strengthens the parent-infant bond The number of positive interactions increases and negative interactions decreases Reveal “baby smarts” Abstract connections Ex: a ceiling fan is like a helicopter, the sun coming up reminds me of a light Promotes positive emotional development and socialization (manners) Babies are able to use signs to express gratitude and love, and signs for please and thank you Boosts self-confidence Gain of pride when they get their message across Helps babies learn to talk and jumpstarts intellectual development Using signs with babies actually helps them learn to talk Singing children are more motivated to talk Higher IQ’s (2nd grade) than those who did not sing as babies (gives a head start but doesn’t make smarter) Understand the development and developmental traits/behaviors associated with a baby gaining ‘object permanence?’ Key-words here: sensorimotor stage, ‘Out of sight, Out of mind,’ ‘Peek-a-Boo,’ ‘A, not-B errors,’ egocentric, allocentric, violation of expectations method Sensorimotor stage: In Piaget’s theory, the first stage in cognitive development, during
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which infants learn through senses and motor activity From birth-2 years, infants learn about themselves and their world through their developing sensory and motor activity as they change from creatures who respond primarily through reflexes and random behavior into goal-oriented toddlers Out of sight, out of mind: 4-8 months (3rd substage-secondary circular reactions), demonstrated in “peek-a-boo,” if they can’t see you, you can’t see them, a person or object does not exist if it’s out of sight A, not B errors 8-12 month children will search for a hidden object in a place where they previously found it, rather than the place where it is now Ex: baby looks under desk would be object permanence, carrot under towel (A)...carrot under towel (A)...carrot under towel (A)...carrot under desk (B)... look under A and not B, this is error in logic Egocentric A form of concentration, self-centered view of spatial relations in the infant and young child Allocentric A collectivistic personality attribute whereby people center their attention and actions on other people rather than themselves Violation of expectation method Noticing or dis-habituating to a stimulus that conflicts with experience Research method in which dishabituation to a stimulus that conflicts with experience is taken as evidence that an infant recognizes the new stimulus as surprising
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