psych 212 exam 2 studyguide.docx

psych 212 exam 2 studyguide.docx - Classnotes 4(Chapter 4...

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Classnotes 4 (Chapter 4: Pregnancy & Prenatal Development) Objectives/Key Terms: Stages of Prenatal Development: Key words here: Germinal, Embryonic, Fetal - Germinal stage: conception to 2 weeks - Embryonic stage: 2-8 weeks - Fetal stage: 8 weeks to birth What are the characteristics of the Embryonic Stage? - 2-8 weeks - Organs and major body systems develop rapidly - Respiratory and digestive - Spontaneous abortion or miscarriage common here What are the key developments during the fetal stage? Key words here: Bone, myelination, addition of fat - Begins 6-8 weeks post fertilization - Addition of fat/myelination to neurons - Prior = only cartilage - Bones = fetus - Finishing touches emerge: - Fingernails - Toenails - eyelids Fetal Behavior & Psychology (Janet Hopson): Understand the key ideas and findings that were presented in the follow research studies: (much of this is from lecture only) Alertness research Key ideas: Indications of fetal REM sleep, association with SIDS - 90-95% of the day “drowsing” - Closer to birth fetus sleeps 85-90% of the time - Includes deep sleep and REM sleep (> ½ total time) - REM sleep associated with learning and memory - Eyes move just like adults - SIDS: sudden infant death syndrome - Abnormal sleep patterns here indicate a higher risk Fetal Movement Key ideas: Tactile stimulation, movement; indications of movement, mismatch of environment for preemies, kangaroo care
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- Mismatch of environment for preemies - Changing care so preemies can: - Curl up - Bring their knees together - Touch themselves with their hands - “Kangaroo care” - Babies love movement - Especially laughter - Ex: trampoline baby Fetal Taste (gustation) – What are the study results for taste? - By 3 ½ months in utero: mature taste buds - Amniotic fluid carries strong tastes - Ex: curry, cumin, garlic, onion, and other essences from mother’s diet Fetal Learning Key words here: sensory adaptation, sucking studies Sound/hearing preferences? What is meant by the term ‘xenophobe?’ Why is talking/reading to a fetus important? What is meant by the ‘Mozart Effect?’ - Sensory adaptation: with benign and constant stimuli - Ex: stop thinking about the air conditioner - Sucking studies: transducers and nipples - Sound developed by 6 months in utero - If baby sucks on nipple → triggers familiar audio - Pauses sucking → baby hears unfamiliar audio - Xenophobe: - Preferred mother’s voice over a stranger - Preferred being read familiar texts - Ex: cat in the hat, (even if by a stranger), not new ones - Women/men who read/talk to fetus connect better with their baby - Mozart effect: - Increase attention span - Encourage better sleep patterns - Expanded cognitive powers - HOWEVER...there is no evidence to support this - Harmful to put headphones too close - Can damage baby’s ears Understand how the following techniques work and what type of information they provide when monitoring prenatal development. (from textbook) Ultrasound and Amniocentesis (3D vs 4D ultrasound was discussed in lecture)
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- 3D: - Multiple 2Ds at different angles render a 3D image - Looks like a photo -
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