Lab 6 Saponification.pdf - Saponification soap making...

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Saponification soap making Learning Goals: Understand the concept of ester hydrolysis Understand how the structure of a salt of a fatty acid helps a soap function Illustrate how an ester carbonyl group acts as an electrophile Introduction: In this experiment you will make soap by hydrolyzing coconut oil. Fats and oils are composed of a complex mixture of esters. One family of these esters is called triglycerides. Triglycerides are composed of the esters of the three carbon triol (three hydroxyl groups) called glycerol and a variety of long chain carboxylic acids containing between 8 and 24 carbons. These ester bonds can be hydrolyzed under basic conditions to give salts of the carboxylic acids and glycerol. Vegetable oils such as coconut oil contain mixtures of triglycerides that when hydrolyzed will give many different fatty acids. These mixtures of fatty acids, which vary in the length of the R group and number of double bonds, give soap its characteristics (water solubility, ability to lather, etc.)
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