Ch. 19, 20 Plus.docx - 19.1 Functions of Blood Blood helps...

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19.1 Functions of Blood Blood helps maintain homeostasis in several ways: 1. Transport of gases, nutrients, and waste products. 2. Transport of processed molecules. 3. Transport of regulatory molecules. 4. Regulation of pH and osmosis. 5. Maintenance of body temperature. 6. Protection against foreign substances. 7. Clot formation. 19.2 Composition of Blood Blood is a type of connective tissue consisting of a liquid matrix containing cells and cell fragments. The total blood volume in women about 4–5 L & 5–6 L in males. Blood makes up about 8% of the total weight of the body. Plasma = the liquid part. 55% of the total blood volume Formed Elements = the cells & cell fragments. 45% of total blood volume. 19.3 Plasma Plasma = the liquid part of blood . Pale yellow fluid. 91% water & 9% other (proteins, ions, nutrients, gases, waste products, & regulatory substances). Plasma is a Colloid = a liquid containing suspended substances that do not settle. Albumin = 58% of the plasma proteins. Controls H2O movement between the tissues & blood. Globulins = 38% of the plasma proteins. Transports substances & protects against microorganisms. Fibrinogen = 4% of the plasma proteins. Responsible for the formation of blood clots. Serum = plasma without the clotting substances
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19.4 Formed Elements Red blood cells (erythrocytes) = 95% of the volume of the formed elements. White blood cells (leukocytes) = Remaining 5% & cell fragments (platelets/thrombocytes). Hematopoiesis = The process of blood cell production Hemocytoblasts = The single population of stem cells that make up ALL the formed elements of the blood. Located in the red bone marrow. Can divide to produce daughter cells that can differentiate into various types of blood cells. 1 daughter cell remains a hemocytoblast; the other divides into either: a myeloid stem cell (Red blood cells, platelets, and most of the white blood cells develop) or a lymphoid stem cell (give rise to lymphocytes). Other formed elements to know: CSF & EPO RBCs (erythrocytes) are about 700 times more numerous than WBC’s. Hemoglobin = The main component of RBC’s is the pigmented protein ( heme - is a red- pigment molecule containing one iron atom/ globin – polypeptide chain) Primary functions of RBC’s = 1) to transport oxygen from the lungs to the various body tissues and 2) to transport carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs .
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