Ch. 18 ENDOCRINE GLANDS.docx - ENDOCRINE GLANDS 18.1...

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ENDOCRINE GLANDS 18.1 OVERVIEW of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM - 2 important control systems of the body are the nervous & endocrine systems that work together to regulate & coordinate the activities of nearly all the other body structures. Composed of glands & cells that secrete the chemical signals called hormones into the plasma of the blood. The main regulatory functions: regulates metabolism & ion levels , controls food intake/digestion, H2O balance, blood glucose, reproductive fxs, modulates tissue development & immune system fx, stimulates uterine contractions & milk release. 18.2 PITUITARY GLAND & HYPOTHALAMUS Structure of the Pituitary Gland – secretes 9 major hormones; 2 major lobes (posterior & anterior) Relationship of the Pituitary Gland to the Brain: The Hypothalamus - The pituitary is regulated, in part, by hormones produced & secreted by neurons in the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus has two different connections with the pituitary gland (anterior & posterior lobes). The hypothalamus links the nervous & endocrine systems by way of the pituitary gland. Primary fx of the HYPOTHALMUS is to maintain homeostasis (stability of the internal environment). The HYPOTHALMUS secretes RELEASING &/or INHIBITING hormones that stimulate or inhibit (like their names imply) production of hormones in the anterior pituitary. Releasing & inhibiting hormones that are produced & secreted by hypothalamic neurons – GHRH GHIH TRH CRH GnRH PRH PIH Hormones of the Pituitary Gland 1) Posterior Pituitary Hormones - does not produce any hormones of its own; instead, it stores and secretes two hormones made in the hypothalamus (oxytocin & anti-diuretic ADH .) ADH prevents ( anti -) the output of large amounts of urine ( diuresis ). Oxytocin stimulates labor by stimulating smooth muscle contraction in the uterus. 2) Anterior Pituitary Hormones - The anterior pituitary is different from the posterior pituitary because its hormones are synthesized by cells in the
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anterior pituitary. These anterior pituitary hormones are regulated by releasing & inhibiting hormones. The anterior pituitary receives signaling
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