2-Neural_Induction - NEURAL INDUCTION Gong Chen, Ph. D....

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NEURAL INDUCTION Gong Chen, Ph. D. Department of Biology
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Important Topics: Where does nervous tissue come from? Formation of neural tubes Spemann Organizer Neural inducing genes Epidermalizing signal Notch and Delta
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Model Systems C. elegans Drosophila Xenopus
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Similar Pattern for Initial Development Animal pole gives rise to epidermis and Nervous system Vegetal pole contains the yolk and those cells Will become gut Cells between animal and vegetal poles will Generate mesoderm, including muscle and bones Egg is polarized A series of cell division and gastrulation form three-layer structure common to most animals: ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm Cell division Polarity
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C. Elegans ~1000 cells in total Transparent Every single cell fate determined Rapid reproduction for quick genetic screen Simple nervous system: 302 neurons, making ~7000 synapses, <25 synapses per neuron 56 glial cells www.mbb.yale.edu/fl/ fl_m_koelle.htm Motor neurons control egg laying The frequency of egg-laying behavior depending on the presence or absence of food in their environment 1 mm long Life span 2-3 weeks Head Tail
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C. Elegans Red is neuronal lineage 2002 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Sydney Brenner— Established this model system For gene analysis in development John Sulston— Mapped the cell lineage Robert Horvitz— Mechanism of programmed cell death AB blastomere form outer layer, which will be nervous system and epidermis. P1 blastomere-derived cells form germ line and go inside to form body, muscle, gut.
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Neuron Ontogeny 9 neurons and 10 hypodermal cells Neurons from ventrolateral AB progeny Neurons migrate inside to form nerve rings Neuron lineage in red
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Drosophila ventrolateral Nuclear syncitium and then cellularization to form blastoderm Ventral furrow initiates gastrulation Nervous system comes from ventrolateral region of the ectoderm Brain comes from procephalic neurogenic region Ventral furrow
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Delamination Swell Squeeze Neuroblast—neural stem cell Neuroblast cells separate from Single cell layer epidermis Nb: neuroblast GMC: Ganglion mother cell Neuroblast cells undergo Asymmetric cell division To form GMC and additional Neuroblasts to continue the cycle Drosophila Neural development not Completed in the larva Additional neurogenesis Occurs during metamorphosis Delaminate
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Xenopus Is the Best Example for Vertebrates Gastrulation —rearrangement of blastula Cells so that some cells close to the vegetal pole move inside of embryo to form endoderm and mesoderm. The remaining outer layer is called
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This note was uploaded on 03/23/2008 for the course BIOL 426 taught by Professor Profgongchen during the Spring '08 term at Pennsylvania State University, University Park.

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2-Neural_Induction - NEURAL INDUCTION Gong Chen, Ph. D....

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