7-Neural_Stem_Cell_therapy

7-Neural_Stem_Cell_therapy - Neural Stem Cells Part III...

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Neural Stem Cells Part III : Neural Stem Cell Therapy
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Stem Cell Therapy for Neurodegenerative Disorders: 1. Parkinson’s disease 2. Stroke 3. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 4. Huntington’s disease Some examples:
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Criteria for Successful Stem Cell Therapy 1. Transplanted stem cells should differentiate into a preferred cell type (dopaminergic, cholinergic, glutamatergic, GABAergic). 2. There should be a sufficient amount of newborn neurons survive over a long term period in the brain. 3. The surviving neurons should functionally integrate into the local neural network. 4. Finally, the behavioral symptoms of the disorders must be alleviated.
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Avoid Adverse Effects 1. Differentiate into unwanted cell types such as glial cells instead of neurons, or unwanted neuronal types. 2. Form wrong synaptic connections with wrong targets. 3. Develop cancer. One way to reduce cancer is to induce differentiation in vitro. Another way is to introduce “suicidal gene” in the stem cells.
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Self-Repair Injury induces generation of new neurons from neural stem cells in the subventricular zone Newborn neurons can migrate into damaged brain area However, >80% newborn neurons die in a few weeks after injury Thus, the key factor is to help the new neurons survive, by providing growth factors such as FGF and EGF. Helping newborn neurons to form synapses with adult neurons is another way to promote survival.
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Stem Cell Therapy I . Parkinson’s Disease PD: dopaminergic (DA) neurons degenerated in the substantia nigra Striatum is the target of DA neurons projected from substantia nigra Chemical treatment with L-DOPA works initially, but with reduced efficacy and development of motor complication along treatment Graft human fetal mesencephalic tissue enriched with DA neurons into striatum ameliorated the PD symptom for up to 10 years. Establishing the cell therapy principle. However, human fetal tissue is very limited in availability. Stem cells have the capacity to provide sufficient cell/tissue supply for all patients.
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Functional Dopaminergic Neurons After Transplantation In A Parkinson Rat Model Bjorklund LM, Sanchez-Pernaute R, Chung S, Andersson T, Chen IY, McNaught KS, Brownell AL, Jenkins BG, Wahlestedt C, Kim KS, Isacson O. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Feb 19;99(4):2344-9.
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This note was uploaded on 03/23/2008 for the course BIOL 426 taught by Professor Profgongchen during the Spring '08 term at Penn State.

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7-Neural_Stem_Cell_therapy - Neural Stem Cells Part III...

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