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Unformatted text preview: ISS 215 Exam 1 Review • What is the sociological mode? Explaining how society actually works not how it seems to work or how we think it ought to work. This is done through social research, going beyond the obvious, not accepting things at face value, objectivity, empirical substantiation, skepticism, and seeing probabilities. • Ideology A set of beliefs and values that explains and justifies a society’s system of power and privilege, that is, structured inequality • Legitimization The acceptance of the inequalities in power & wealth as natural and even socially beneficial • Individual Mobility The ability of individuals to change their position in a social hierarchy, usually limited to one’s economic class but in the US there are no restrictions • Group Mobility Status of the group as a whole changes due to economic or social factors • Equity vs. Liberty o Equity is the distribution of the society’s rewards in a just manner (i.e. paying taxes as a nation), collective interests take precedence over individual interests o Liberty is freedom to pursue one’s interests as one desires and to reap the benefits of one’s own benefits • Capitalism vs. Democracy o Capitalism is a competitive free market system that is unequal due to some failing and others prevailing o Democracy honors the principle of equity and the nation acting as a whole before acting as an individual • Social Differentiation Horizontal ranking, there is no rank. When studying social inequality, this makes up the population of a society • Social Stratification Vertical ranking, some are placed above others based on social & physical characteristics; ranking roles ISS 215 Exam 1 Review • Inequality of Opportunity Differences in people’s chances of acquiring social resources. Limited opportunity or not because of living conditions • Inequality of Condition Variations in people’s actual living standards or life conditions • American class structure The stratification of the American people based on the distribution of wealth and income • The Six Different Classes of the US o The Upper Class – those that share income and wealth that far exceeds those in other classes. They get most of their income not from wages but from investments, stocks, bonds, & real estate. o The Upper Middle Class – they “run” the companies that the upper class own. Their skills and expertise are crucial to the functioning of the society’s major institutions such as governments, corporations, and mass media. Higher education is imperative to reach this class. They derive their corporations, and mass media....
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This note was uploaded on 03/23/2008 for the course ISS 215 taught by Professor Lang during the Spring '06 term at Michigan State University.
- Spring '06