OB lecture 1 & 2.docx - OB lecture 1 2 Terms o Genes o Genome o Dominant inheritance o Recessive inheritance o The traits of the recessive gene are

OB lecture 1 & 2.docx - OB lecture 1 2 Terms o Genes o...

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OB lecture 1 & 2TermsoGenesGenes are composed of DNA (hereditary material) and protein.oGenomean organism’s complete set of DNAoGenotypea person’s genetic makeupoPhenotyperefers to how the genes are outwardly expressed (i.e., eye color, hair color, heightoDominant inheritanceoRecessive inheritanceThe traits of the recessive gene are present when both genes of the pair are recessive.oGenetic disordersGenetic defects occur whenthere is a defected recessive gene is present and paired with a health gene but it will not express… they are acarrier… it won’t manifestoif both genes are defected then the person would carry the disorder AND manifest it physicallySex linked disorderaka X-linked because most of the time it is found in the X chromosomeoif woman is affected she does not manifest, she is only a carrieromen who carry it will also manifest the disorderoex. XX (female).. one gene is defective and replica is healthy… women will not manifest because it is paired with one healthy geneXY (male) no healthy counterpart/replica that can help, so they will manifest oExamples: colorblindness, balding, hemophilia (can’t clot… can’t participate in contact activities) o50% chance carrier mom passes to daughters will become carriers and 50% to son who will be affectedoit is always the recessive genes that are defected not dominantRisk factors for genetic disordersoMaternal age >35 increased risk of chromosomal abnormalitiesDown syndrome, deletion, translocationoHx of previous pregnancy resulting in genetic disorderoMan and/or woman who has a genetic disorderoFamily Hx oSpecific decent Sickle cell – African American Mediterranean feverCystic fibrosis – Europeans
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Tay-sachs – JewishWhy test?oPerinatal genetic testing/early dxoParental decision to terminate or maintain pregnancyoNurse’s role in genetic counselingAssess s/s Offer supportEducate on procedures and testsAssist in value clarificationDo not give results! But can clarify resultsTeratogensoSmoking constricts vessels and nutrients to baby are restrictedBaby is deprived of nutrientsIntrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)Low birth weightoCytomegalovirusIncreased risk for:HydrocephalyMicrocephalyCerebral calcificationMental retardationHearing lossoRadiationoMedicationoRaw meatoCats… advise to have someone else change litter… or place cat somewhere else during prenancyoCocainePlacenta can detach (most common cause of placenta abruption)Increased risk for:Heart, limbs, face, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract defectsCerebral infarctionsPlacental abnormalitiesoAlcoholIncreased risk of fetal alcohol syndrome occurring when the pregnant woman ingests six or more alcoholic drinks aday. No amount of alcohol is considered safe during pregnancy.
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