Theory Midterm review.docx - Theory Midterm review...

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Theory Midterm review [email protected] Key terms: Feudalism: a form of social organization that existed in Europe from the 5 th to the 15 th century o An explicitly hierarchical system based on reciprocal bonds (duties owed to one another) o Characterized by rule of absolute monarchs based on law of god- highly traditional and religious o A system of social organization based on rural and agrarian village life Mercantilism: a new way of ordering society o Mercantile- trade/ commerce o Absolute monarchies and emerging of nation- state o Composition of all the people together (Hobbes) o Emergence of command economy o Trade and commerce: Subsidization of trade, commerce, and industry Allowing for international trade o Age of reason People: Thomas Hobbes: People submit to a higher power for their own good Equality- we are all weaker but people are fighting to be better than one another. Government helps maintain peace between the fight of equality Nature is bad because if we go into a state of nature there is no order in society- without government we can’t survive we would all fight for power and survival Law and government is product of society not nature Men can be naturally power hungry- government subdues this to minimize war Common wealth: Being peace and content when government owns you Lack of recourses: Code of the streets: Take care of yourself (without government people are battling each other)
Liberty is bad because is derived from nature and nature itself is bad. Monarch government not democracy Democracy= not capable of protecting selves Nature= essential human character Powerful central government keeps people in society from warring against each other Government= external force to constrain power hungry people Rousseau: Fundamental concern: Coercion VS choice o People are sharing and caring because we are collective o Choice is where we agree on the laws Disagrees with coercion o Forcing someone to do something against their will Relationship between sovereign and people results in people giving up their liberty to the sovereign Choice is important because subjects are choosing to enter into contract Didn’t want feudalism (strongest to rule) Relationships of dominance is only legitimate between equals The only time one person can dominate over others is when domination is legitimate The relationship is entered into through free agency To be human is to express agency and make choices about ones life A person is free and human only if they rule over themselves and over equals A citizen- participate in creation of laws and following them Expressing agency is the ability to make reasonable choices from a range of options over our lives Coercion is based on domination and it dehumanizes someone robs people of agency Coercion is not needed because with choice we can make the rules and follow them

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