4_RelationalDataModelAndRelationalMapping.pdf

# 4_RelationalDataModelAndRelationalMapping.pdf - Relational...

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Relational Data Model and ER/EER-to-Relational Mapping Chapter 4

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Contents 2 1 Relational Data Model 2 Main Phases of Database Design 3 ER-/EER-to-Relational Mapping
Contents 3 1 Relational Data Model 2 Main Phases of Database Design 3 ER-/EER-to-Relational Mapping

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Relational Data Model 4 Basic Concepts: relational data model, relation schema, domain, tuple, cardinality & degree, database schema, etc. Relational Integrity Constraints key, primary key & foreign key entity integrity constraint referential integrity Update Operations on Relations
Basic Concepts The relational model of data is based on the concept of a relation A relation is a mathematical concept based on the ideas of sets The model was first proposed by Dr. E.F. Codd of IBM in 1970 in the following paper: "A Relational Model for Large Shared Data Banks," Communications of the ACM, June 1970 5

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Basic Concepts Relational data model: represents a database in the form of relations - 2-dimensional table with rows and columns of data. A database may contain one or more such tables. A relation schema is used to describe a relation Relation schema: R(A1, A2,…, An) is made up of a relation name R and a list of attributes A1, A2, . . ., An. Each attribute Ai is the name of a role played by some domain D in the relation schema R. R is called the name of this relation 6
Basic Concepts The degree of a relation is the number of attributes n of its relation schema. Domain D : D is called the domain of Ai and is denoted by dom(Ai). It is a set of atomic values and a set of integrity constraints STUDENT(Name, SSN, HomePhone, Address, OfficePhone, Age, GPA) Degree = ?? dom(GPA) = ?? 7

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Basic Concepts Tuple : row/record in table Cardinality : number of tuples in a table Database schema S = {R1, R2,…, Rm} 8
Basic Concepts A relation r (or relation state, relation instance ) of the relation schema R(A1, A2, . . ., An), also denoted by r(R), is a set of n-tuples r = {t1, t2, . . ., tm}. Each n-tuple t is an ordered list of n values t = <v1, v2, . . ., vn>, where each value vi, i=1..n, is an element of dom(Ai) or is a special null value. The i th value in tuple t, which corresponds to the attribute Ai, is referred to as t[Ai] 9

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Basic Concepts Relational data model Database schema Relation schema Relation Tuple Attribute 10
Basic Concepts A relation can be conveniently represented by a table, as the example shows The columns of the tabular relation represent attributes Each attribute has a distinct name, and is always referenced by that name, never by its position Each row of the table represents a tuple. The ordering of the tuples is immaterial and all tuples must be distinct 11

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Basic Concepts 12
Alternative Terminology for Relational Model 13 Formal Terms Informal Terms Relation Table Attribute Column Header Domain All possible Column Values Tuple Row Schema of a Relation Table Definition State of the Relation Populated Table

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Relational Integrity Constraints Constraints are conditions that must hold on all valid relation instances. There are three main types of
• Spring '17
• Relational model, relation, DBS4

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