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ch 4 notes - 1 Define the term culture and explain how...

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1. Define the term culture, and explain how societal culture and organizational culture combine to influence on-the-job behavior. Culture is a set of beliefs and values about what is desirable and undesirable in a community of people, and a set of formal or informal practices to support the values. Culture has both prescriptive and descriptive elements and involves taken-for-granted assumptions about how to think, act, and feel. Culture overrides national boundaries. Key aspects of societal culture, such as customs and language, are brought to work by the individual. Working together, societal and organizational culture influence the person's values, ethics, attitudes, and expectations. 2. Define ethnocentrism, and distinguish between high-context and low-context cultures. Ethnocentrism is the belief that one's native culture, language, and ways of doing things are superior to all others. People from low-context cultures infer relatively less from situational cues and extract more meaning from spoken and written words. In high-context cultures such as China and Japan, managers prefer slow negotiations and trust-building meetings, which tends to frustrate low-context Northern Europeans and North Americans who prefer to get right down to business. 3. Identify and describe the nine cultural dimensions from Project GLOBE. (1) Power distance—How equally should power be distributed? (2) Uncertainty avoidance—How much should social norms and rules reduce uncertainty and unpredictability? (3) Institutional collectivism—How much should loyalty to the social unit override individual interests? (4) In-group collectivism—How strong should one's loyalty be to family or organization? (5) Gender egalitarianism—How much should gender discrimination and role inequalities be minimized? (6) Assertiveness—How confrontational and dominant should one be in social relationships?
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