Ch 8 notes - Ch. 8 notes 1. Contrast Maslow's, Alderfer's,...

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Ch. 8 notes Motivation Psychological processes that arouse and direct goal-directed behavior. 1. Contrast Maslow's, Alderfer's, and McClelland's need theories. Maslow proposed that motivation is a function of five basic needs arranged in a prepotent hierarchy. The concept of a stair-step hierarchy has not stood up well under research. Alderfer concluded that three core needs explain behavior—existence, relatedness, and growth. He proposed that more than one need can be activated at a time and frustration of higher-order needs can influence the desire for lower-level needs. McClelland argued that motivation and performance vary according to the strength of an individual's need for achievement. High achievers prefer tasks of moderate difficulty, situations under their control, and a desire for more performance feedback than low achievers.Top managers should have a high need for power coupled with a low need for affiliation. 2. Explain the practical significance of Herzberg's distinction between motivators and hygiene factors. Herzberg believes job satisfaction motivates better job performance. His hygiene factors, such as policies, supervision, and salary, erase sources of dissatisfaction. On the other hand, his motivators, such as achievement, responsibility, and recognition, foster job satisfaction. Although Herzberg's motivator–hygiene theory of job satisfaction has been criticized on methodological grounds, it has practical significance for job enrichment. 3. Discuss the role of perceived inequity in employee motivation. Equity theory is a model of motivation that explains how people strive for fairness and justice in social exchanges. On the job, feelings of inequity revolve around a person's evaluation of whether he or she receives adequate rewards to compensate for his or her contributive inputs. People perform these evaluations by comparing the perceived fairness of their employment exchange with that of relevant others. Perceived inequity creates motivation to restore equity. 4. Explain the differences among distributive, procedural, and interactional justice. Distributive, procedural, and interactional justice are the three key components underlying organizational justice. Distributive justice reflects the perceived fairness of how resources and rewards are distributed. Procedural justice represents the perceived fairness of the process and procedures
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This note was uploaded on 03/23/2008 for the course MAN 336 taught by Professor Edwards during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Ch 8 notes - Ch. 8 notes 1. Contrast Maslow's, Alderfer's,...

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