Exam 2 Review - Ch 2 Diversity The Glass Ceiling: Invisible...

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Ch 2 – Diversity The Glass Ceiling: Invisible barrier blocking women and minorities from top management positions. Underemployment: The result of taking a job that requires less education, training, or skills than possessed by a worker. Social Categorization Theory: Similarity leads to linking and attraction, thereby fostering a host of positive outcome. Research shows that homogeneity is better than heterogeneity in terms of affecting work-related attitudes, behavior, and performance. Information/Decision-Making Theory: Diversity leads to better task-relevant processes and decision making. Diverse group possess a broader range of task-relevant knowledge, and have different opinions and perspectives that reduces redundancy. 3 positive effects: diverse groups expected to do better job in earlier phases of problem, diversity helps groups to brainstorm and uncover more novel alternatives, and lastly diversity can enhance number of contacts a group or work unit has at its disposal. There are 10 barriers to successfully implementing diversity initiatives: ( a ) inaccurate stereotypes and prejudice- differences viewed as weaknesses, ( b ) ethnocentrism-own culture superior to others, ( c ) poor career planning-lack of opportunities for diverse emp., ( d ) an unsupportive and hostile working environment for diverse employees- sexual, racial, and age harassment, ( e ) lack of political savvy on the part of diverse employees-diverse emp. may not get promoted b/c they are inexperienced in office politics , ( f ) difficulty in balancing career and family issues-harder for women, ( g ) fears of reverse discrimination-“one’s gain is another’s loss”, ( h ) diversity is not seen as an organizational priority-“time wasted that could have been spent doing real work”, ( i ) the need to revamp the organization's performance appraisal and reward system-emp. resistant to changes that affect promotions and rewards, and ( j ) resistance to change-people resist change for millions of reasons. Ann Morrison’s Diversity Practices: three main types or practices: Accountability practices relate to a manager's responsibility to treat diverse employees fairly. Development practices focus on preparing diverse employees for greater responsibility and advancement. Recruitment practices emphasize attracting job applicants at all levels who are willing to accept challenging work assignments. Stereotypes: Beliefs about the characteristics of a group. Stereotypes represent grossly oversimplified beliefs or expectations about groups of people. Stereotyping is a four-step process that begins by categorizing people into groups according to various criteria. Next, we infer that all people within a particular group possess the same traits or characteristics. Then, we form expectations of others and interpret their behavior according to our stereotypes. Finally, stereotypes are maintained by (
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Exam 2 Review - Ch 2 Diversity The Glass Ceiling: Invisible...

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