Article wk 2 Diversity_and_Promise_Fulfillment.pdf - Springer 2009 Journal of Business Ethics(2010 91:501518 DOI 10.1007\/s10551-009-0096-y The Impact of

Article wk 2 Diversity_and_Promise_Fulfillment.pdf -...

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The Impact of Diversity Promise Fulfillment on Professionals of Color Outcomes in the USA E. Holly Buttner Kevin B. Lowe Lenora Billings-Harris ABSTRACT. This paper explores the relationship between psychological contract violations (PCVs) related to diversity climate and professional employee outcomes. We found that for our sample of US professionals of color including US-born African Americans, Hispanics, Asians, and Native Americans, employee perceptions of breach in diversity promise fulfillment (DPF), after controlling for more general organizational promise fulfillment (OPF), led to lower reported organizational commitment (OC) and higher turnover intentions (TI). Interactional justice partially mediated the relationship between DPF and outcomes. Procedural justice and DPF interacted to in- fluence OC of employees of color. For respondents who perceived a lack of DPF, moderate racial awareness was associated with greater PCV. We discuss the implications of the findings and provide directions for future research. KEY WORDS: diversity, diversity climate, justice, psychological contract, commitment, turnover intentions Introduction The globalization of business, accelerating organi- zational reliance on technology, and ethnic differ- ences in birth rates are leading to an increasingly complex and competitive marketplace. As a result, the attraction, management, and retention of a di- verse applicant pool of high-performing professional workers is emerging as a significant 21st-century staffing issue for US organizations (Ployhart, 2006 ). The escalating diversity of job applicants and con- sumer markets is highlighted by US Census Bureau ( 2002 ) projections that Americans of color will comprise 38% of the population by 2025. Inthisstudy,wedefineemployeesofcolortobeUS- born, self-identified, African Americans, Hispanics, Asians, and Native Americans. These individuals comprise several minority ethnic groups in the USA. Historically in the USA, employees from these groups have been underrepresented in the workforce, parti- cularly in the professional ranks of organizations. Ef- fectivelyemployingandmanagingmembersfromthese ethnic groups, especially at professional levels, is be- coming increasingly important as the demographics in the USA shift toward greater ethnic diversity. Ac- cordingly, we focus on professionals of color in the USA. A critical organizational dimension for many employees of color is the diversity climate. Ac- cording to Cox ( 1994 ), diversity climate is com- posed of three levels: individual, intergroup, and organizational factors. Of particular interest in this study are the individual and organizational factors. Individual-level factors include identity structures, comprised of both physical identity and cultural identity, the latter consisting of the world view, espoused norms, values, and goal priorities to which an individual may adhere. At the organizational le- vel, structural and informal integration include such dimensions as the overall employment profile of various groups and participation in the power structure of the organization. Cox’s model of the
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