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The Impact of Diversity PromiseFulfillment on Professionals of ColorOutcomes in the USAE. Holly ButtnerKevin B. LoweLenora Billings-HarrisABSTRACT. Thispaperexplorestherelationshipbetween psychological contract violations (PCVs) relatedto diversity climate and professional employee outcomes.We found that for our sample of US professionals of colorincluding US-born African Americans, Hispanics, Asians,and Native Americans, employee perceptions of breach indiversity promise fulfillment (DPF), after controlling formore general organizational promise fulfillment (OPF),led to lower reported organizational commitment (OC)and higher turnover intentions (TI). Interactional justicepartially mediated the relationship between DPF andoutcomes. Procedural justice and DPF interacted to in-fluence OC of employees of color. For respondents whoperceived a lack of DPF, moderate racial awareness wasassociated with greater PCV. We discuss the implicationsof the findings and provide directions for future research.KEY WORDS: diversity,diversityclimate,justice,psychological contract, commitment, turnover intentionsIntroductionThe globalization of business, accelerating organi-zational reliance on technology, and ethnic differ-ences in birth rates are leading to an increasinglycomplex and competitive marketplace. As a result,the attraction, management, and retention of a di-verse applicant pool of high-performing professionalworkers is emerging as a significant 21st-centurystaffing issue for US organizations (Ployhart,2006).The escalating diversity of job applicants and con-sumer markets is highlighted by US Census Bureau(2002) projections that Americans of color willcomprise 38% of the population by 2025.Inthisstudy,wedefineemployeesofcolortobeUS-born, self-identified, African Americans, Hispanics,Asians, and Native Americans. These individualscomprise several minority ethnic groups in the USA.Historically in the USA, employees from these groupshave been underrepresented in the workforce, parti-cularly in the professional ranks of organizations. Ef-fectivelyemployingandmanagingmembersfromtheseethnic groups, especially at professional levels, is be-coming increasingly important as the demographics inthe USA shift toward greater ethnic diversity. Ac-cordingly, we focus on professionals of color in theUSA.A critical organizational dimension for manyemployees of color is the diversity climate. Ac-cording to Cox (1994), diversity climate is com-posed of three levels: individual, intergroup, andorganizational factors. Of particular interest in thisstudy are the individual and organizational factors.Individual-level factors include identity structures,comprised of both physical identity and culturalidentity, the latter consisting of the world view,espoused norms, values, and goal priorities to whichan individual may adhere. At the organizational le-vel, structural and informal integration include suchdimensions as the overall employment profile ofvarious groups and participation in the powerstructure of the organization. Cox’s model of the