Unformatted text preview: Part
I Personal Skills CHAPTER S
1 DEVELOPING SELFAWARENESS Assessing emotional
intelligence Determining values and
moral maturity Identifying cognitive
Assessing attitude toward change
Understanding core self-evaluation 2 MANAGING PERSONAL STRESS
Coping with stressors
Developing resiliency 3 SOLVING PROBLEMS ANALYTICALLY AND CREATIVELY
Using the rational approach
Using the creative approach
Fostering innovation in others 1 发展自我意识
促进他人创新 This page intentionally left blank SKILL ASSESSMENT ■ Self-Awareness Assessment
■ Emotional Intelligence Assessment
■ The Defining Issues Test
■ Cognitive Style Indicator
■ Locus of Control Scale
■ Tolerance of Ambiguity Scale
■ Core Self-Evaluation Scale (CSES)
■核心自我评估量表（CSES） SKILL LEARNING ■ Key Dimensions of Self-Awareness
■ The Enigma of Self-Awareness
■ Understanding and Appreciating Individual
■ Important Areas of Self-Awareness
■ Behavioral Guidelines
■行为准则 SKILL ANALYSIS ■ Communist Prison Camp
■ Computerized Exam
■ Decision Dilemmas
■决策困境 SKILL PRACTICE APPLICATION ■ Suggested Assignments
■ Application Plan and Evaluation ■建议的分配
LEARNING OBJECTIVES ■ Through the Looking Glass
■ Diagnosing Managerial Characteristics
■ An Exercise for Identifying Aspects of Personal
Culture: A Learning Plan and Autobiography
■识别个人文化方面的练习：学习计划和自传 SKILL 1
Increase personal awareness of your:
PERSONAL VALUES AND MORAL MATURITY
ORIENTATION TOWARD CHANGE
CORE SELF-EVALUATION SCORING KEYS AND
COMPARISON DATA MyManagementLabTM ✪ When you see this icon, visit
for self-assessments, video activities, and more. 37 SKILL ASSESSMENT DIAGNOSTIC SURVEYS FOR
✪ If your instructor is utilizing MyManagementLab, log onto
mymanagementlab. com and select the Personal Inventory
Assessment (PIA) section and complete the instruments associated
with this chapter.
The assessment instruments in this chapter are briefly described
below. The assess- ments appear either in your text or in PIA.The
assessments marked with (blue star) are available only in PIA.
All assessments should be completed before reading the chapter
After completing the first assessment save your response to
your hard drive. When you have finished reading the chapter, re-take
the assessment and compare your responses to see what you have
✪ 如 果 您 的 教 师 正 在 使 用 MyManagementLab ， 请 登 录 到
下面简要介绍本章中的评估工具。 评估结果出现在您的文本或 PIA 中。标
有（蓝色星号）的评估仅在 PIA 中提供。
比较你的反应，看看你学到了什么。 ✪ ❏ The Self-Awareness Assessment Instrument measures the extent to which you are
self-aware and effectively engage in self-awareness practices. ✪ ❏ The Emotional Intelligence Assessment measures your emotional style and intelligence.
❏ The Defining Issues Test assesses your moral and values maturity
based on your responses to controversial social issues.
❏ The Cognitive Style Indicator assesses the way you gather and
evaluate information and make decisions.
✪ ❏ The Locus of Control Scale measures your opinion about the causes
and influences of
certain events in your life.
❏ The Tolerance of Ambiguity Scale assesses the extent to which you are
comfortable in situations where ambiguity and uncertainty are
❏ The Core Self-Evaluation Scale measures core personality attributes
that predict human behavior. Self❏自我意识评估工具衡量你的程度 P I A PERSONAL INVENTORY
❏核心自我评估量表衡量预测人类行为的核心人格属性。 DEVELOPING SELF-AWARENESS
Assessment Section THE DEFINING ISSUES TEST
This instrument assesses your opinions about controversial social issues. Different people
make decisions about these issues in different ways. You should answer the questions
for yourself without discussing them with others.
You are presented with three stories. Following each story you are asked to
choose between three decisions. Next, you will rate the importance of 12 questions
about the story in influencing your decision. After you have completed your ratings,
select the four most important questions and rank them from one to four in the spaces
这个工具评估你对有争议的社会问题的看法。 不同的人以不同的方式对这些问题作出决定。 你应该为
你有三个故事。 在每个故事之后，你被要求在三个决定之间进行选择。 接下来，您将评估 12 个关于影
响您决定的故事的重要性。 完成评分后，请选择四个最重要的问题，并在提供的空格中将其排名从 1 到
4。 Some statements will raise important issues, but you should ask yourself whether
your decision should rest on that issue. Some statements sound high and lofty but are
largely gibberish. If you cannot make sense of a statement, or if you don’t understand its
meaning, mark it 5—“Of no importance.” Use the following scale for rating the
importance of the statements.
1 Of great
importance This statement or question makes a crucial
difference in making a decision about the problem. 2 Of much
importance 3 Of some
importance This statement or question is something that
would be a major factor (though not always a
one) in making
involves something 4
5 Of little
E you care about, but it is not of great importance
or question is not very important
to consider in this case.
This statement or question is completely
unimportant in making a decision. You would waste
your time thinking about it. 有些言论会引发重要的问题，但你应该问自己，你的决定是否应该依赖于这个问题。一些声明听起来很高，但很大程度上
这个陈述或问题在作出决定时完全不重要。你会浪费你的时间思考它。 The Escaped Prisoner
A man had been sentenced to prison for 10 years. After one year, however, he escaped from
prison, moved to a new area of the country, and took on the name of Thompson. For
eight years he worked hard, and gradually he saved enough money to buy his own
business. He was fair to his customers, gave his employees top wages, and gave most of his
own profits to char- ity. Then one day, Ms. Jones, an old neighbor, recognized him as the
man who had escaped from prison eight years before and for whom the police had been
What should Ms. Jones do? (Check one.)
Report him—send him back to prison
Not report him
一名男子被判入狱 10 年。 然而，一年后，他逃出监狱，搬到了该国的一个新地区，
并以汤普森的名字命名。 八年来，他努力工作，逐渐节省了足够的钱来购买自己的 企业。 他对客户公平，为员工提供最高工资，并把自己的大部分利润贡献给了客户。
报告他 - 送他回监狱
e 1 Hasn’t Mr. Thompson been good enough for such a long time to prove he isn’t a
2 Every time someone escapes punishment for a crime, doesn’t that just encourage
3 Wouldn’t we be better off without prisons and the oppression of our legal system?
4 Has Mr. Thompson really paid his debt to society?
5 Would society be failing what Mr. Thompson should fairly expect?
6 What benefit would prison be apart from society, especially for a charitable man?
7 How could anyone be so cruel and heartless as to send Mr. Thompson to prison?
8 Would it be fair to prisoners who have to serve out their full sentences if Mr.
Thompson is let off?
9 Was Ms. Jones a good friend of Mr. Thompson? 726/5000 重要性 1.汤普森先生是否已经有足够长的时间来证明他不是一个坏人？
9.琼斯女士是汤普森先生的好朋友吗？ 10 Wouldn’t it be a citizen’s duty to report an escaped criminal, regardless of
11 How would the will of the people and the public good best be served?
12 Would going to prison do any good for Mr. Thompson or protect anybody?
From the list of questions above, select the four most important:
Second most important
Third most important
Fourth most important
第四重要 1 The Doctor’s Dilemma
A woman was dying of incurable cancer and had only about six months to live. She
was in terrible pain, but was so weak that a large dose of a pain killer such as
morphine would probably kill her. She was delirious with pain, and in her calm
periods, she would ask her doctor to give her enough morphine to kill her. She said she
couldn’t stand the pain and that she was going to die in a few months anyway.
What should the doctor do? (Check one.)
Give the woman an overdose that will make her die
Don’t give her the overdose Importanc
e 1 Is the woman’s family in favor of giving her the overdose?
2 Is the doctor obligated by the same laws as everybody else?
3 Would people be better off without society regimenting their lives and even their
4 Should the doctor make the woman’s death from a drug overdose appear to be an
5 Does the state have the right to force continued existence on those who don’t
want to live?
6 What is the value of death prior to society’s perspective on personal values?
7 Should the doctor have sympathy for the woman’s suffering, or should he care
more about what society might think?
8 Is helping to end another’s life ever a responsible act of cooperation?
9 Can only God decide when a person’s life should end?
10 What values has the doctor set for himself in his own personal code of
11 Can society afford to let anybody end his or her life whenever he or she
12 Can society allow suicide or mercy killing and still protect the lives of individuals
who want to live? From the list of
questions above, select 无法决定
the four most
most important 重要性
第四重要 The Newspaper
Rami, a senior in high school, wanted to publish a mimeographed newspaper
for students so that he could express his opinions. He wanted to speak out
against military build-up and some of the school’s rules, such as the rule
forbidding boys to wear long hair.
When Rami started his newspaper, he asked his principal for permission. The
principal said it would be all right if before every publication Rami would turn in all his
articles for the principal’s approval. Rami agreed and turned in several articles for
approval. The principal approved all of them and he published two issues of the paper
in the next two weeks.
But, the principal had not expected that Rami’s newspaper would receive so
much attention. Students were so excited by the paper that they began to organize
protests against the government, hair regulation, and other school rules. Angry
parents objected to Rami’s opinions. They phoned the principal telling him that the
newspaper was unpa- triotic and should not be published. As a result of the rising
excitement, the principal wondered if he should order Rami to stop publishing on
the grounds that the controver- sial newspaper articles were disrupting the operation
of the school. A
E What should the principal do? (Check one.)
Stop Rami’s newspaper
Don’t stop it
校长，告诉他这份报纸是不合情理的，不应该发表。由于兴奋的增加，校长想知道他是否应该命令 Rami 停止出版，理由是控制报纸的文章会扰乱学校的运作。
停止 Rami 的报纸
不要阻止它 3 Importanc
e 1 Is the principal more responsible to the students or to the parents?
2 Did the principal give his word that the newspaper could be published for a
long time, or did he just promise to approve the newspaper one issue at a
3 Would the students start protesting even more if the principal stopped the
4 When the welfare of the school is threatened, does the principal have the
right to give orders to students?
5 Does the principal have the freedom of speech to say no in this case?
6 If the principal stopped the newspaper, would he be preventing full discussion of
7 Would the principal’s stop order make Rami lose faith in him?
8 Is Rami really loyal to his school and patriotic to his country?
9 What effect would stopping the paper have on the students’ education in
critical thinking and judgment?
10 Is Rami in any way violating the rights of others in publishing his own opinions?
11 Should the principal be influenced by some angry parents when it is the principal
who knows best what is going on in the school?
12 Is Rami using the newspaper to stir up hatred and discontent?
From the list of questions above, select the four most important:
Most important Second
important Third most important
Fourth most important
SOURCE: Adapted from Rest, Narvaez, Thoma, & Bebeau, 1999. COGNITIVE STYLE INDICATOR
This instrument assesses the way you gather and evaluate information and make decisions. There are no right or wrong answers, and the accuracy of your results will
depend on the extent to which you honestly answer each question. Please use the
following scale in responding to each item.
1 Totally disagree
3 Neither agree nor
5 Totally agree 10
9 Developing a clear plan is very important to me.
I like to contribute to innovative solutions.
I always want to know what should be done when.
I prefer to look at creative solutions.
I want to have a full understanding of a problem.
I like detailed action plans.
I am motivated by ongoing innovation.
I like to analyze problems.
I prefer a clear structure to do my job. I like a lot of variety in my life.
I engage in detailed analyses.
I prefer well-planned meetings with a clear agenda.
New ideas attract me more than existing solutions.
I study each problem until I understand the underlying logic.
I make definite appointments and follow-up meticulously.
I like to extend the boundaries.
A good task is a well-prepared task.
I try to avoid routine. SOURCE: Cognitive Style Indicator, Cools, E. and H. Van den Broeck. (2007) “Development and Validation
of the Cognitive Style Indicator.” Journal of Psychology, 14: 359–387. TOLERANCE OF AMBIGUITY SCALE
This assessment helps you better understand how comfortable you are with
situations that are inherently ambiguous. Inasmuch as this is a self-diagnostic tool,
candid, realistic responses are essential.
Please respond to the following statements by indicating the extent to which you
agree or disagree with them. Fill in the blanks with the number from the rating scale
that best represents your evaluation of the item. 混沌尺度的公差
白。 Rating Scale
1 Strongly disagree
2 Moderately disagree
3 Slightly disagree
4 Neither agree nor disagree
5 Slightly agree
6 Moderately agree
7 Strongly agree
9 1 非常不赞同
157 非常同意 1 An expert who doesn’t come up with a definite answer probably doesn’t
know too much.
2 I would like to live in a foreign country for a while.
3 There is really no such thing as a problem that can’t be solved.
4 People who fit their lives to a schedule probably miss most of the joy of living.
5 A good job is one where what is to be done and how it is to be done are always clear.
6 It is more fun to tackle a complicated problem than to solve a simple one.
7 In the long run it is possible to get more done by tackling small, simple
problems rather than large and complicated ones.
8 Often the most interesting and stimulating people are those who don’t mind
being different and original.
9 What we are used to is always preferable to what is unfamiliar.
10 People who insist upon a yes or no answer just don’t know how complicated
things really are.
11 A person who leads an even, regular life in which few surprises or unexpected
hap- penings arise really has a lot to be grateful for.
12 Many of our most important decisions are based upon insufficient information.
13 I like parties where I know most of the people more than ones where all or
most of the people are complete strangers.
14 Teachers or supervisors who hand out vague assignments give one a chance to
show initiative and originality.
15 The sooner we all acquire similar values and ideals the better.
16 A good teacher is one who makes you wonder about your way of looking at things.
SOURCE: S. Budner (1962), “Intolerance of Ambiguity as a Personality Variable,” from Journal of Personality,
30: 29–50. Reprinted with the permission of Blackwell Publishing, Ltd. CORE SELF-EVALUATION SCALE (CSES)
Research has identified four core elements of self-evaluations. This instrument will
help you identify the component parts of your overall self-evaluation. Inasmuch as
this is a diagnostic tool, candid, realistic responses are essential.
Below are several statements with which you may agree or disagree. Using
the response scale below, indicate your level of agreement or disagreement with
each statement. 核心自我评估量表（CSES） A
E 研究确定了自我评估的四个核心要素。 该仪器将帮助您确定整体自我评估的组成部分。 由于这是一种诊断工具，因此坦诚
以下是您可能同意或不同意的几个陈述。 使用下面的回答量表，表明你对每个陈述的一致或不同意。 Rating Scale
5 Strongly disagree
Strongly agree 1 I am confident I get the success I deserve in life.
2 Sometimes I feel depressed.
3 When I try, I generally succeed.
4 Sometimes when I fail I feel worthless.
5 I complete tasks successfully.
6 Sometimes, I do not feel in control of my work.
7 Overall, I am satisfied with myself.
8 I am filled with doubts about my competence.
9 I determine what will happen in my life.
10 I do not feel in control of my success in my career.
11 I am capable of coping with most of my problems.
12 There are times when things look pretty bleak and hopeless to me.
SOURCE: T. Judge, A. Erez, J. Bono, and C. Thoreson. The core self-evaluation scale:
Development of a measure, Personnel Psychology, 2003: 303–331. SKILL LEARNING Key Dimensions
Awareness of Self- For more than 2000 years, knowledge of the self
has been considered at the very core of human
behavior. The ancient dictum “Know thyself” has
been vari- ously attributed to Plato, Pythagoras,
Thales, and Socrates. Plutarch noted that this
inscription was carved on the Delphic Oracle, that
mystical sanc- tuary where kings and generals
sought advice on matters of greatest importance
to them. Probably the most oft-quoted passage on
the self is Polonius’ advice in Hamlet: “To thine
own self be true, and it must follow as the night
the day, thou canst not then be false to any man.”
Philip Massinger reminded us: “He that
would govern others must first master himself.”
Lao Tsu famously stated: “Knowing others is
intelligence. Knowing oneself is true wisdom.
Mastering others is strength; mastering yourself is
true power.” Because self-awareness lies at the
heart of the ability to mas- ter oneself and
therefore to lead and manage others effectively, this chapter serves as the foundation for
managing oneself and others. Of course, a host of...
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