Bio II Final Study Sheet.docx - ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION= 1...

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ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION= 1 parent/nogenetic diversity vs.SEXUAL REPRODUCTION= 2 parents/ genetic diversity | ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION= FISSION – cell/organism splits in 2, BUDDING – outgrowth of a body part (bud) until it separates from the organism, FRAGMENTATION – the breaking of an organism into parts followed by regeneration, PARTHENOGENESIS – an egg develops without being fertilized. |Hermaphrodite = an organism with both male and female sex organs |Birds have Z & W chromosomes; ZZ= male, ZW= female/ Swordfish have 3 chromosomes |Fertilization= fusion of sperm & egg nuclei | EXTERNAL FERTILIZATION– occurs outside female body vs. INTERNAL FERTILIZATION – occurs inside female body. | OVIPARITY= fertilized eggs laid outside body and there, OVOVIPARITY= fertilized eggs retained in female body & hatch there or laid before hatching; embryo is nourished from yolk, VIVIPARITY= young are born alive and nourished by placenta. | Zona Pullucida = the thick transparent membrane surrounding a mammalian ovum before implantation. |Acrosome = enzyme at head of sperm cell that allows sperm to penetrate egg cell |after one sperm enters, changes in the egg cell membrane prevent other sperm from entering | A zygote is the product of the fusion of a sperm and egg cell. A human zygote has 2 chromosomes|3 GERM LAYERS = ENDODERM- will form gut & many internal organs, MESODERM- will form muscle & connective tissue, ECTODERM- will form nervous system & epidermis |ORGANOGENESIS= The formation of organs |

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