Chapter 8 Outline.docx - Chapter Eight Outline I America Secedes from the Empire A Congress Drafts George Washington a One of the most important single

Chapter 8 Outline.docx - Chapter Eight Outline I America...

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Chapter Eight Outline I. America Secedes from the Empire A. Congress Drafts George Washington a) One of the most important single action of the Congress was to select George Washington to head the army besieging Boston. Tall, powerfully build, dignified Virginia planter, forty-three years of age, that never risen about the rank of a colonel. Largest command of only two hundred men that lost more than they won. Gifted with outstanding powers of leadership and immense strength of character. o Patience, courage, self-discipline, and a sense of justice. More of a great moral force rather than a great military mind. A symbol and a rallying point for the people. Insisted without pay and always kept an expense amount amounting to more than $100,000. Washington’s selection by the Continental Congress was political. o Americans in other sections were jealous and it was the beginning of distrust in the New England army. o Washington selected because he came from the largest colony and he was a man of wealth. B. Bunker Hill and Hessian Hirelings a) Beginning of Warfare Americans were both affirming loyalty to the king wanting to patch up difficulties and raising armies and shooting British soldiers. April 1775 to July 1776. May 1775: Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold captured British garrisons at Ticonderoga and Crown Point. o Captured a priceless store of gunpowder and artillery for the Siege of Boston. July 1775: Seized Bunker Hill, from which they menaced the enemy in Bsoton. o British launched frontal attacks instead of flanks, which was a giant blunder. o Fifteen hundred entrenched Americans versus three thousand British. o Forced to abandon Bunker Hill after gunpowder ran out. o Great victory: “If two more such victories, British would have no more army.” b) Olive Branch Petition July 1775: Continental Congress adopted the “Olive Branch Petition,” professing American loyalty to the crown and begging the king to prevent further hostilities. o King George III denies all hope of reconciliation and formally proclaimed the colonies in rebellion in August 1775. Sealed the deal when he hired thousands of German troops to crush the rebellions. o Six princes needed the money and George III needed the men. Countered with the Americans calling for the Hessians. o Even though unwelcomed at first, the Hessians were good soldiers, but were more interested in booty than in duty. “Hessian flies” seduced by American promises of land. o Many of the Hessians deserted and remained in America. C. The Abortive Conquest of Canada a) Two Pronged Invasion of Canada
October 1775: British burned Falmouth, Maine at the same time the rebels were launching a two-pronged invasion of Canada. Americans believed that the French were at unrest and that a successful assault would bring Canada as a fourteenth colony o Would deprive Britain of a valuable base for striking the colonies.

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