Glossary 1 - GLOSSARY argument A set of one or more...

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GLOSSARY argument A set of one or more propositions (statements), called premises, advanced as proof or evidence for another proposition, called the conclusion. epistemology Theory of knowledge and justification. In this area of philosophy, we consider issues about how we know what we know as well as the nature of knowledge and justification. Traditionally, discussions of skepticism are included here. ethical objectivism The objectivist holds that there are true (and false) moral statements, as well as morally right and commendable acts in contrast with morally reprehensible ones, whether or not anyone (any subject) is aware of them. The objectivist believes that ethical criteria are to be found in the nature of people's acts and states of character. Socrates appears to be an ethical objectivist. ethical particularism The view that one has special duties and responsibilities to certain persons that one does not owe to others. Both Socrates and Confucius appear to be ethical particularists. ethical universalism An ethical view can be "universalist" in several different senses: (i) in contrast with ethical particularism, a universalist view does not differentiate degrees of moral responsibility owed to different people (e.g. "each counts for one, and none for more than one," Jeremy Benthem; or agapism); (ii) the view that right action entails the universalizability of the principle or maxim that guides the action ("it can't be right for John to do X if it would be wrong for Jim, in the same circumstances, to do X"). ethical skepticism The view that there are no true moral statements, or (in a weaker form) that no moral statement can be shown to be true or justified. ethical conventionalism The view that not only is the meaning of moral terms determined by conventions obtaining in a given society, but also that the truth of moral judgments (or statements) is determined by the mores (the "ethical customs") that obtain in a society. ethical relativism
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Glossary 1 - GLOSSARY argument A set of one or more...

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