12 - KPER 1500 - Physical Education I - Fall 2017_online.pdf - KPER 1500 Foundations of Physical Education Kinesiology Physical Education I Required

12 - KPER 1500 - Physical Education I - Fall...

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Unformatted text preview: KPER 1500 Foundations of Physical Education & Kinesiology Physical Education I Required readings: (1) “Movement Domains,” by Chunlei Lu, Nancy Francis, and Ken Lodewyk (pp. 208-225); (2) “Physical Literacy” (excerpt), by Rebecca Lloyd and Stephen Smith (pp. 226-235), in Teaching Physical Education Today: Canadian Perspectives Part one of the discussion • Physical education – Intended outcomes and how these have changed over time – Historical evolution of physical education curriculum in Canada – Contemporary PE: • Physical literacy • Fundamental movement skills • Movement domains The approach historically • A disciplinary approach to education – Perfectly suited for physical education, centred around military drill and gymnastics for boys, calisthenics for girls The slow implementation of physical education • In 1889, “physical training” became compulsory. – Kindergarten: light gymnastics, marching exercises every day – Public schools: drill and calisthenics—the different extension movements prescribed in the authorized textbook should be frequently practised…. In addition, the boys should be formed into companies and taught the usual squad and company drill, and the girls should be exercised in calisthenics. • E.B. Houghton, Physical Culture: First Book of Exercises in Gymnastics and Drill (1886), based on German gymnastics Physical education at the end of the nineteenth century • 1891: only 45% of students received “compulsory” physical training instruction. • Barriers: – – – – poorly trained teachers few or inadequate facilities large classes absence of incentives for boards. • Yet, by 1921: – Students enrolled in spelling: 400,000 – Students enrolled in physical education: 500,000 What factors led to this remarkable change? The Strathcona Trust • An endowment of $500,000 • To “encourage physical and military training in the schools” • Interest (4%; $20,000 annually) distributed according to the school population of each province • Intended as a “stimulus or inspiration” for the growth of curricular physical education • Created in 1909 – Ontario began using the Syllabus in 1911 – All provinces, except Quebec, eventually participated The Strathcona Trust • Grants to provinces for: – The distribution of the Syllabus of Physical Exercises for Schools – Written in 1911; updated in 1919, 1933 – Incentive prizes to students and teachers, for: • physical training • military drill • rifle shooting 50% 35% 15% • Curriculum extended in 1921 to include games Physical Exercises, Strathcona School, Winnipeg, 1918 1st Prize Physical Drill , Div 1, 1916 Port Moody Central School, Port Moody, BC The Strathcona Trust Syllabus was based upon Swedish gymnastics, which: • featured less use of gymnastic equipment; • placed more emphasis on mass participation; and • stressed precision and uniformity of movement. Strathcona Trust Syllabus • Not a text for school children • Rather, it was a manual for teacher preparation Effect of the Strathcona Trust • Accelerated the growth of physical education as a compulsory subject – 1911: 250,000 1921: 500,000 • Was the pedagogical basis for physical education curriculum in Canada until well into the 1950s-60s … • Baby boom: “Between 1940 and 1965 the annual number of births in Canada rose from 253,000 in 1940 to 479,000 in 1960 … Over a period of 25 years, the baby boom produced about 1.5 million more births than would otherwise have occurred” (Jacques Henripin, The Canadian Encyclopedia) Impact of the Baby Boom on education • The Baby Boom – both its demographic and cultural impact – created a pressure for more facilities and greater numbers of teachers, first in elementary and high school and then in post-secondary education • “By the late 1950s virtually everyone could agree on the need for universal high school education, and by 1970 over 90 per cent of Canadian children of high school age were in school.” J.L. Bumsted, A History of the Canadian Peoples, p. 390 Impact on PE: child-centred pedagogy • “…the basic principles of child-centredness, anti-authoritarian teaching, and belief in the social importance of education did take hold through the 1950s and into the 1960s. Nontraditional subjects intruded to even greater degrees in the classroom. There was more Art, more Health, more Music than a generation before.” (Doug Owram, Born at the Right Time, pp. 127-28) • Shift from teacher- and subject-centered to child-centered pedagogy • Compulsory requirements reduced • Optional activities, especially lifelong skills • Co-ed instruction and activities • Growth in after-school sports The impact on contemporary PE • Movement education: “a more holistic approach” that “teaches underlying movement skills through conceptual understanding … exploration, creativity, and problem solving” (43). • Focus on physical literacy: “having the skills to move purposely, comfortably, confidently, and expressively for the diverse needs of life” (43), e.g., LTAD model – Creating a positive learning climate – Developing appropriate instruction – Recognizing varied learning styles Physical literacy “Physical literacy is the mastering of fundamental movement skills and fundamental sport skills that permit a child to read their environment and make appropriate decisions, allowing them to move confidently and with control in a wide range of physical activity situations. It supports long-term participation and performance to the best of one’s ability.” Canadian Sport For Life, 2011 Physical literacy • Shift away from mind-body dualism: – “Building blocks” metaphor – Whitehead: “bank of movement competencies” – Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) • To shift the subject of PE away from “a prescribed activitycentred performance model to a person-centred participation model” (Whitehead) • Shift away from mastery of sportspecific skills • Acquisition of foundational skills that can be applied across many settings Physical literacy • More broadly considers “the holistic physical, mental, and emotional development of the physically active child.” (228) • With the aim of instilling in children “confidence, and competence to be physically healthy and active.” (228) • Developing an appreciation of healthy lifestyles for the long-term Student-centred physical education • “The goal of PE is to assist children and youth to develop the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for a healthy, active lifestyle.” (Lu et al, 210) • Specific to individual learner’s needs – developing competencies not specific skills • Specific to age level: elementary school PE focuses on different movement skills than high school PE Fundamental movement skills • “the most basic movement skills found in any complex skill …” • They “are not acquired naturally; they must be taught” (Lu et al, 211) • Teaching a variety of activities can be valuable in the acquisition of multiple skills Movement domains (DAIGG) Dance • Expressive movement • Dance forms – Folk and social dance – Creative and modern dance • Reflects diverse cultures • Rationale: – “Dance is a physical activity based upon fundamental movement skills. It is also an art form with a specific language and a social forum through which students’ life skills can be developed.” [Lu et al, 212] Alternative Environment Activities • Activities not normally performed in the gym or school playing field – usually held outdoors – Land-based (e.g., hiking, orienteering) – Ice- or snow-based (e.g., curling, snowboarding) – Water-based (e.g., swimming, canoeing) • Rationale: – – – – – Promote active lifestyles through adulthood Develop appreciation of nature Link to other subjects (e.g., geography, social studies, biology) Appreciation of Indigenous practices Student safety Individual Physical Activities • “activities that are performed alone but may be enjoyed socially as well. They are enormously important because of our lifetime need for physical activity as an integral part of our lifestyle” (Lu et al, 222) • Activities: – Walking, jogging, running – Personal fitness activities – Mindfulness exercises, e.g., yoga, martial arts, Pilates • Rationale: – Promotes health-related physical fitness – Develops skill-related physical fitness Gymnastics • An aesthetic ability that focuses on how the body moves in relation to the floor rather than on a specific action or result of action (like games) • In addition to muscle development and body control, students learn collaboration, critical thinking, planning, and predicting as they solve movement problems Gymnastics • Rationale: – 2 forms: • Rhythmic (manipulation of ball, rope, hoop, ribbon, club) • Educational (jumping, landing, rolling, balancing, hanging, swinging, climbing) – 6 fundamental skills • • • • • • Locomotion (moving from one place to another) Statics (balance) Rotations Springs (producing flight) Landings (stability after flight) Swings (free-flowing movement, with apparatus) Games • “Games tend to be the largest component of the PE curriculum for most schools … They provide a generally engaging means of enhancing functional movement skills, knowledge, and behaviours” (Lu et al, 218) • Rationale: – Teach rules and goal achievement – Promote positive socio-affective factors: positive relationships, intrinsic motivation, feelings of competence, enjoyment, safety, and support • Drawback: games tend to be less inclusive of all students • Age-specific instruction: game themes rather than formal rules at elementary level, mastery of rules and specific skills at higher levels ...
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  • Winter '18
  • Shae Strachan
  • Physical exercise, Chunlei Lu

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