Basis of Biology 02/19/2018 ° Chapter 1 ° Evolution is the process of change that has transformed life on Earth ° Breeding different types of dogs for an ideal outcome like the Labra-Doodle ° ° Biology is the scientific study of life ° Biologists ask questions such as: ° How a single cell develops into an organism (seed to something) ° How the human mind works ° How living things interact in communities ° ° The Seven Properties of Life ° Order – living things are highly complex and organized – sunflower’s seeds are organized and symmetrical. Requires energy ° Evolutionary adaptation – change – genetic makeup of an individual organism is not going to change but the population can change. Will take generations to occur. “Survival of the fittest”. ° Response to the Environment – organisms have the ability to perceive and respond to both internal and external stimuli. A Venus flytrap is able to sense the environment and consume prey. ° Reproduction – gives rise to offspring that are the same. Bunnies give birth to bunnies. Leads to survival of species, continuity of life, and passing on genes. ° Growth and Development – observable ° Energy Processing – organisms need materials and energy to maintain order, to grow, and to reproduce. The energy comes from the sun. Radiant to chemical energy processing is performed by plants, algae, and fungi. Mammals eat the plants and convert the energy from plant to ATP. ° Regulation – homeostasis. Homo means “same”. Stasis means “balance” or “equilibrium”. Regulation is the process of sweating to return body temperature back down to the set point. The process of sweating does not lower temperature; it is the evaporation of the sweat that cools someone down. ° ° Biological Hierarchy
° ° Reductionism – taking a complex system, splitting it into smaller and smaller pieces making it easier to study ° Tell in order the actual biological levels ° ° Atom – the smallest particle of an element that retains the properties of that element (carbon, oxygen, hydrogen) ° Molecule – combinations of atoms ° 4 important for life: carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acid, and proteins ° Organelle – structure within a cell that performs a specific function ° Cell – smallest unit of life, the structure that can obey or possess all 7 forms of life ° Tissue – group of similar cells that perform a specific function ° Organ – structure composed of several tissue types that form a functional unit ° Organ systems – two or more organs working together for a specific bodily function ° Organism – an individual living thing ° Population – members of one species inhabiting the same area ° Community – two or more populations of different species living and interacting in the same area ° Ecosystem – communities together with their nonliving surroundings ° Biosphere – part of Earth inhabited by living organisms and includes living and nonliving components ° ° Producers can convert radiant energy into chemical energy ° Consumers convert one form of chemical energy into a useable form of chemical energy – eat plants or eat animals that eat plants °
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