Psyc 3130: Experimental Psychology Review for Exam 2 Exam date: Thurs March 8, 2018 Measurement: CHAPTER 5 What are the three main types of measures used in psychology? Make sure to know and identify types and examples of each. 1. Observational : (also called a behavioral measure) the experimenter judges observable behaviors or responses a. Ex. can operationalize happiness by observing how many times a person smiles b. Ex. can observe stress behaviors by counting the number of tooth marks left on a person’s pencil 2. Self-Report : people give direct, explicit responses about themselves in a questionnaire or interview a. Affective self-reports : Feelings and emotions b. Cognitive self-reports : Attitudes and thoughts c. Behavioral self-reports : Past (frequency of engaging in a behavior) and future (intention) 3. Physiological : recording biological data/physical variables a. Brain activity, hormone levels, heart rate b. Ex. Facial EMG can detect a happy facial expression bc ppl who are smiling show particular patterns of muscle movement around the eyes and cheeks What is reactivity and what might one do to reduce it? Reactivity = individual’s awareness of being measured changed their behavior o People act differently when being observed Ways to reduce reactivity: o Unobtrusive observation = observing behavior without participants’ knowledge What are the scales used in measurement? And know examples etc. Categorical & Quantitative Categorical : (only a qualitative difference) 1. Nominal : events assigned to categories, a classification system a. Ex. Gender –with the levels male and female
b. Ex. Species –with the levels chimpanzee, turtle, and dog Quantitative : (meaningful numerical differences) 1. Ordinal : events rank ordered a. Ex. a bookstores website displays the top 10 best-sellers and we know that #1 book sold more than #2 but we don’t know if the number of books that separate #1 and #2 are equal to the number of books that separate #2 and #3 i. The first two rankings are only 10 apart but the second two rankings could be 150,000 books apart b. Ex. 1 st , 2 nd , 3 rd place in a contest 2. Interval : events rank ordered with equal intervals between levels, there is no “true zero” a. Ex. A person can get a score of 0 on an IQ test but that does not mean a person has “no intelligence” i. SAT score b. Ex. Fahrenheit – 0 degrees does not mean “no temperature” 3. Ratio : rank ordering of events with equal intervals and a “true zero” a. On a test, some people might answer 0 things correctly and their score of 0 truly means “nothing correct” or zero b. Physical measurements What’s the difference between qualitative and quantitative measures? Qualitative measures have no numerical meaning Quantitative measures have meaningful numerical differences What is reliability? (test-retest, inter-item/internal consistency, inter-rater)? How to measure (some specifics for each)?
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