Exam 1 Bio 110 Studyguide.docx

Exam 1 Bio 110 Studyguide.docx - What is biology the...

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What is ‘biology’? the scientific study of living things. Summarize the characteristics of living organisms - made up from a common set of chemical components, use genetic info to reproduce - consists of one or more cells - metabolize (conduct chemical transformations) - organisms evolve through changes over time What are cells? the building block of life What is a gene? specific segments of DNA that encoded information – form amino acids into protein What is DNA? a linear molecule that are made of different nucleotides What is a genome? the sum of all DNA – in each cell Fact: Nearly all cells in a multicellular organism have the same genome. How can all species on earth be genetically related? What evidence suggests this relationship? All species on earth share a common ancestor and are genetically related through their initial make up Evidence – all species were initially the same but through evolution, natural selection and adaptions the specific species environment, each population becomes so different they are considered different species. Genome sequencing and molecular methods have helped biologists to argue evolutionary knowledge When did earth first form? between 4.6 and 4.5 billion years ago How long has life been part of earth? about a ½ a billion years What type of cells are likely to have been the first cells present on earth? Bacteria and archaea Fact: Prokaryote – “before the nucleus” Eukaryote – “true nucleus” What features characterize eukaryotic cells? A nucleus with the genetic material and the mitochondria that power the cell. What are the three domains of current life? bacteria
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archea eukarya Why is life separated into three domains of life? its based off of the analysis of gnomes What distinguishes science from other methods used to understand our world? Science is based upon reasoning with observations and data to turn them into theories. Scientific method – - Observations - Questions - Hypotheses - Predictions - Questions Scientific hypostasis must be testable, and have the potential of being rejected. Science depends on evidence that comes from reproducible and quantifiable observations. What are the three main components of an atom, and what properties does each component have? Protons (positive), neutrons (neutral), electrons (negative) What is the mass of one proton? 1 dalton What is the mass of one neutron? 1 dalton What is the mass of an electron? so small its insignificant What is the difference between an atom and an element? An atom will have the same number of protons and electrons and is the building block. An element is a substance made entirely from one type of atom. Why, as a biologist, should you know H, C, N, O, P, and S? about 98% of the mass in every living organism is composed of these 6 elements.
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