Chapter 8.docx - Chapter 8: The Age of Enlightenment I....

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Chapter 8: The Age of EnlightenmentI.IntroA.The 18th century pre french revolution(1789) is commonly known as theenlightenmentB.Optimistic themes of historical advancementC.Critiques of existing regimes and traditionsSection 35: The Philosophes and OthersI.The spirit of Progress and ImprovementA.Drawn from the scientific and intellectual revolution of the 17th century, naturallaw and natural right, bayle, spinoza, locke, newton, Bacon, Descartes, first timethat europeans were skeptical of traditionB.Progress, belief that human life gets better as time goes on, ancients believed thework of the greeks had never been surpassed, moderns disagreedC.Witchcraft mania abruptly died, as people embraced radical skepticism, newimage of god, no longer saving grace but instead a divine watchmaker who set theuniverse in motionD.Certainly people were still religious, some like watts and Bach wrote churchhymnsE.John wesley was england's john whitfield, and they preached together in thecolonies as wellF.Few elite joined new movements, these were started by the uncomfortableG.“Age of reason” did not stop people believing in things without explanation,Mesmer---(mesmerized) cured with “faith/magic” in an early form of hypnosisbut it was significant that this was disproven by the academy of the sciences ashaving no real logical foundationH.Freemasonry- held enlightenment views, and respected god as an architect of theuniverse, but met secretly, with a kind of occult feel
II.The PhilosophesA.In the 18th century a philosopher is simply someone who approached a subjectwith a critical nature or intentB.The reading public had expanded, women were reading, all readers wantedmatters made interesting and clear, which greatly benefited writing which wasoften long winded and incomprehensibleC.New style was clear, fluent, and exact, people began to talk of “public opinion”,debates were had in coffee houses, newspapers, and journals, the bourgeoisie wasbecoming educatedD.Impacted by social conditions: in many countries writing was done undercensorship to “protect the population from harmful ideas” these standards weredetermined by church, parliament, royals, printers guilds. Authors tended to attackmatters in general instead of in particular and filled their works with jokes andreferences to make their original point to maintain deniability. The public,meanwhile, began to purchase illegal booksE.This movement centered in Paris, Helvetius who wrote “on the mind” and “onman” was a rare wealthy philosopher. Salons were run by women who played acrucial mediating role in what was to be called “the country of letters”F.Salones became well organized meeting places: notable people like SuzanneNecker, Julie de Lespinasse. This set up gave women influence in the republic oflettersG.Diderot wrote seventeen volumes of the encyclopedia. The first encyclopedia tohave a distinguished list of contributors, carried a strong tone of skeptical

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