CHAPTER 1.docx - CHAPTER 1 Anarchy-The condition of no government Aristocracy-Rule by the best in reality rule by members of the upper class

CHAPTER 1.docx - CHAPTER 1 Anarchy-The condition of no...

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CHAPTER 1 Anarchy -The condition of no government. Aristocracy -“Rule by the best”; in reality, rule by members of the upper class. Authoritarian - A type of regime in which only the government itself is fully controlled by the ruler. Social and economic institutions exist that are not under the government’s control. Authority -The right and power of a government or other entity to enforce its decisions. Bill of Rights- The first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution. Capitalism - An economic system characterized by the private ownership of wealth-creating assets, free markets, and freedom of contract. Civil Liberties- Those personal freedoms, including freedom of religion and freedom of speech, which are protected for all individuals. Civil liberties set forth restrain the government from taking certain actions against individuals. Conservatism - A set of beliefs that includes a limited role for the national government in helping individuals, support for traditional ideals and life choices, and a cautious response to change. Conservative Movement- An American movement in the 1950s that provided a comprehensive ideological framework for conservative politics. Democracy - A system of government in which political authority is vested in the people. The term is derived from the Greek words demos (“the people”) and kratos (“authority”). Democratic Republic -The concept that ultimate political authority is based on the will of the people. Direct Democracy - A system of government in which political decisions are made by the people directly, rather than by their elected representatives; probably attained most easily in small political communities. Elite theory - A perspective holding that society is ruled by a small number of people who hold the ultimate power to further their self-interests. Equality - As a political value, the idea that all people are of equal worth. Government - The preeminent institution within society in which decisions are made that resolve conflicts and allocate benefits and privileges. It is unique because it has the ultimate authority for making these decisions. Hispanic- A term used by the federal government to describe someone who can claim a heritage from a Spanish-speaking country. Ideology - A comprehensive set of beliefs about the nature of people and about the role of an institution or government. Initiative - A procedure by which voters can propose a law or a constitutional amendment. Institution- An ongoing organization that performs certain functions for society. Latino - An alternate word for Hispanic, now more widely used. The feminine is Latina. Legislature - A governmental body primarily responsible for the making of laws. Legitimacy - Popular acceptance of the right and power of a government or other entity to exercise authority.
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