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Madigan, Martinko, Dunlap, and Clark Brock Biology of Microorganisms, Twelfth Edition Chapter 1 Guide Microorganisms and Microbiology Prepared by John M. Zamora, Middle Tennessee State University Chapter 1 Guide
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Chapter 1 Guide Microorganisms and Microbiology I. Introduction to Microbiology 1.1 Microbiology The Importance of Microorganisms o Make up the largest mass of living things on Earth o Carry out many chemical processes necessary for other organisms o Preceded plants and animals on Earth by billions of years o Can live in places unsuitable for other organisms o Many other life forms could not have arisen or been sustained without the presence of microorganisms 1.2 Microorganisms as Cells Cell Chemistry and Key Structures o Cells consist of four chemical components: proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and polysaccharides o These large molecules ( macromolecules ) make up more than 95% of a cell’s dry weight o The cytoplasmic membrane separates the inside of the cell from the outside environment o The fluid cytoplasm contains the nucleus or nucleoid , where DNA is stored, and ribosomes , structures consisting of protein and RNA, where new protein is made o Most microbial cells also contain a cell wall that provides structural strength to the cell Characteristics of Living Systems o Compartmentalization and metabolism o Reproduction (growth) o Differentiation o Communication o Movement o Evolution Cells as Machines and as Coding Devices o The link between these two cellular attributes is cell growth o Before cell division is complete, the chemical machinery of the cell supplies energy and precursors for biosynthesis of macromolecules o When a cell divides, each of the two resulting cells must contain a copy of the genetic information 1.3 Microorganisms and Their Natural Environments Microbial Interactions o An ecosystem is all the living organisms, together with physical and chemical constituents of their environment o An ecosystem is greatly influenced and even controlled by microbial activities 1.4 The Antiquity and Extent of Microbial Life 2
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Brock Biology of Microorganisms, 12e The First Cells o It is likely that all cells descended from a common ancestral cell (the universal ancestor of all life) o Over the years, these first cells grew and divided to form cell populations and these began to interact as microbial communities o
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