Chapter 2-7 Study GuideIdentifications1. Columbian Exchange: An exchange that included exchanges of plants, animals, diseases, laborand cultures through the Atlantic Ocean after Christopher Columbus discovered the New World .2. Encomienda System: A system that was used by Spanish colonies that required Native Americans in the Caribbean to pay tribute and work for Spanish farmers and the Natives would receive protection in return and it encouraged Native Americans to become Christians.3. Treaty of Tordesillas: A treaty signed at Tordesillas on 7 June 1494, divided the colonies lands between Portugal and Spain. Portugal received the slavery trade from the treaty and Spain gainedmore lands.4. Joint-stock companies: Companies who sold stocks to people to get money for further development and investors could receive benefits from the development. This idea was used by English merchants in the seventeenth century.5. Indentured servants: Poor immigrants who paid for their transportation to the New World by signing a contrast to work for farmers in America for certain amount of years from the seventeenth century.6. Navigation Acts: A law passed in the 1650s and 1660s that required all goods from British colonies needed to ship to British ports first which benefited English merchants, shippers in the middle of the seventeenth century.7. Mercantilism: An economic term that tried to develop wealth by limiting imports and encouraging exports. The system was operated by Europeans from the sixteenth century.8. Triangle Trade: Trade routes that across the Atlantic that America sent raw materials to Europe, Europe made goods and sold them abroad, Africa provided labors.9. Great Awakening: A religious revitalization of American colonies began in Massachusetts between the 1730s to the 1740s which emphasized religious faith and personal choice. Many famous universities were established during the period.10. Seven Years’ War: A war fought between Britain and France from 1754 to 1763, it was sparked by frontier conflicts and was also considered as a course of American Revolution. The war helped British colonies gained lands but left a huge amount of debts.