Chapter 26 Cold War Politics in the Truman Years, 1945-1952Chapter 27 The Politics and Culture of Abundance, 1952-1960Study GuideIdentification:1. Iron Curtain: Term coined by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill in a March 1946 speech in Fulton, Missouri. Churchill forcefully proclaimed that the Soviet Union was establishing an iron curtain between the free countries of Western Europe and the Communist-controlled countries of Eastern Europe. He noted that the iron curtain divided the Soviet Union and its Eastern European satellites. 2. Containment: Policy devised by American diplomat George F. Kennan. Kennan believed thatthe United States needed to implement long-term military, economic, and diplomatic strategies inorder to contain the spread of communism. According to Kennan, if communism could be contained, it would eventually crumble under its own weight. Kennan’s ideas became official U.S. government policy in the late 1940s. The policy of containment was central to most American policy toward the Soviet Union for the next forty five years. 3. Truman Doctrine: In March 1947, the president announced the Truman Doctrine, which stated that it would become the stated duty of the United States to assist all democratic nations ofthe world who resisted communism. Congress authorized $400 million in aid for Greece and Turkey. The policies outlined in the Truman Doctrine and in George Kennan’s article can be found embedded in American foreign policy all the way through the 1980s. 4. Marshall Plan: By the term of the Marshall Plan, the United States provided nearly twelve billion dollars in economic aid to help rebuild Europe. This assistance was of a strictly nonmilitary nature, and was designed, in large measure, to prevent Western Europe from falling into economic collapse. Seventeen Western European nations received aid under the Marshall Plan. Several of them became valuable trading partners of the United States by the early part of the 1950s. The Soviet Union was invited to apply for aid from the Marshall Plan. Stalin refused and ordered the Soviet satellite countries to do the same. 5. Berlin Airlift: In June 1948, Soviet and East German military units blocked off transportation by road into West Berlin. Truman authorized the institution of the Berlin Airlift. For nearly fifteen months, American and British pilots flew in enough food and supplies for West Berlin to survive. The Americans and British achieved at least a public relations victory when Stalin ordered the lifting of the blockade in May 1949. Shortly afterward, the French, English, and American zones of occupation were joined together into West Germany, and the Americans stationed troops there to guard against further Soviet actions. 6. NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization, a military alliance between the United States and Western European countries that was formed in April 1949. The main provision of the NATO treaty was that an attack on one signatory nation would be considered an attack on all of them.