primates to examine evolutionary changes over time. We will focus on the fourepochs discussed in the pre-lab information (Paleocene, Eocene, Oligocene,Miocene).Remember, when we are looking at fossils, we cannot expect to always haveperfectly preserved specimens that look exactly like the bones of living primates.The fossils that we will be using in this lab (and in the later hominin evolution labs)are often incomplete based on the nature of the fossil record, how things preserve,and how things are recovered in the field. Therefore, if certain fossils (such as theSivapithecus) are missing half of their face, this is not a mistake in the lab, but thereality of how that fossil preserved. Despite the fact that some of these areincomplete, these fossils are sometimes all we have to work with when we arelearning about species and life in the past. Keep this in mind when you are lookingat the fossils in these laboratory exercises and imagine how paleoanthropologistsare confronting some of the same problems you are but will still work with all that isavailable to improve our understanding of life in the past. Note:Morphological variation exists within species as a function of the forces ofevolution you have learned about in this class (e.g. mutation, gene ﬂow, geneticdrift, natural selection). Not all fossils assigned to a given species will exhibit thesame presence or degree of a given morphological trait. This lab seeks todemonstrate general morphological trends within human evolution.To complete Lab 8, you will need to access the online repository for 3D PDFs ordownload the appropriate 3D PDFs to view the skulls. Each station in Lab 8 willconsist of images of extinct and living primate skulls and then you will be asked aseries of questions to compare the features on those skulls. Some of thesefeatures may be hard to see, but even if you had a real skull in your hands, somefeatures might still be hard to identify. Do your best with what you have!