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CHEM/PHYS 2High-Yield Science:Reaction RatesSolution EquilibriaElectric Potential Energy
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/Macroscale-and-Microscale-Organic-Experiments-7th-Edition-9781305577190-628/
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Chapter 25 / Exercise 2
Macroscale and Microscale Organic Experiments
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26Section I High-Yield ScienceChem/Phys 2REACTION RATESIn this lesson, you’ll learn to:·Identify the order and rate for elementary reactions within a reaction mechanism·Calculate a rate law for a given reaction using a rate tableIn 1940, Sir Christopher Ingold proposed the mechanism for the SN1 reaction. He used experimentallydetermined rate laws for a great many SN1 reactions to validate his theory that the SN1 reactionfollows a multi-step mechanism and that the rate-determining step is carbocation formation. Considerthe following SN1 substitution oftert-butyl bromide carried out in water and the accompanyingexperimental data about this reaction’s rate:H3CH3CH3CBr+CH3OH+H2OCH3CH3CH3COCH3+Br+H3O+CTrial 1[R3CBr] (M)2.0×10–12.0×10–14.0×10–14.0×10–28.0×10–28.0×10–22.97×10–62.78×10–66.03×10–6[CH3OH] (M)Initial Rate (M/s)Trial 2Trial 3Why do the experimental data prove that carbocation formation is the rate-determining step?Any multi-step reaction mechanism—for example, SN1—consists of at least two elementary reactionsteps. What are the three possible elementary reactions and their rate laws?ReactantsProductsRate LawFirst OrderSecondOrderReaction Rates are covered in:General Chemistry, Chapter 5: Chemical Kinetics
Section I High-Yield ScienceChem/Phys 2What are the specific elementary reactions in this SN1 mechanism and what are their rate laws?Step 1: Carbocation FormationRate =H3CH3CH3CBrCH3CCH3H3C+BrC+Step 2: Nucleophilic AttackH3CH3CH3COCH3CH3CCH3H3C+CH3OHC++HRate =Step 3: DeprotonationH3CH3CH3COCH3+ H2OC+HH3CH3CH3COCH3+ H3O+CRate =How does the experimental data in this question prove that carbocation formation is the rate-determining step in the SN1 mechanism?
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28Section I High-Yield ScienceChem/Phys 2SOLUTION EQUILIBRIAIn this lesson, you’ll learn to:·Use key terms from molar solubility to make a plan for an MCAT question·Recall and execute the steps to solving a molar solubility question·Predict the impact of a common ion on the molar solubility of a compoundThe molar solubility of iron (III) hydroxide in pure water at 25°C is 9.94 × 10–10M. How would thesubstance’s molar solubility change if placed in aqueous solution with a pH of 10.0 at 25°C?Solubility Product:The equilibrium constant for a dissolution reactionMolar Solubility:The number of moles of a substance dissolved per liter of solution to reachequilibrium.Why is the solubility product,Ksp, of this dissolution reac-tion less than the molar solubility of iron (III) hydroxide?

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Term
Spring
Professor
B
Tags
Enthalpy, pH, Reaction, Potential Energy, scientific reasoning
We have textbook solutions for you!
The document you are viewing contains questions related to this textbook.
Macroscale and Microscale Organic Experiments
The document you are viewing contains questions related to this textbook.
Chapter 25 / Exercise 2
Macroscale and Microscale Organic Experiments
Williamson/Masters
Expert Verified

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