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Unformatted text preview: and relate the hearts electrical activity to its pumping action. Describe how the phases of the electrocardiogram relate to the events of the cardiac cycle. Explain the difference between extrinsic control and intrinsic control, and explain how these terms relate to the regulation of the heart. Explain how each of the following variables affects cardiac output: sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activity, circulating epinephrine, afterload, preload, end-diastolic volume, ventricular contractility, and filling time....
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- Spring '08