CHAPTER 5 The American Revolution: From Elite Protest to Popular Revolt, 1763–1783 Exam Study Guide Structure of Colonial Society 5.1 Why did Americans resist parliamentary taxation? Breakdown of Political Trust Whigs ideas; source of political instability Parliamentary sovereignty No Taxation Without Representation: The American Perspective Meaning of representation; virtual representation Justifying Resistance Loyalists John Locke; Commonwealthman tradition Role of press Eroding the Bonds of Empire (Table 5.1) 5.2 WHAT events led to the erosion of the bonds of empire during the 1760s? Pontiac & Neolin; Paxton Boys; Proclamation Line 1763 Paying Off the National Debt Sugar Act 1764; response The Protest Spreads Stamp Act 1765; Stamp Act Congress; Sons of Liberty; boycott Declaratory Act 1766 Fueling the Crisis Townshend Acts 1767; American response Surge of Force Boston Massacre 1770; Committee of correspondence 1772 The Final Provocation: The Boston Tea Party 1773 Tea Act; Boston Tea Party; Coercive Acts of 1774 Steps Toward Independence 5.3 WHAT events in 1775 and 1776 led to the colonists’ decision to declare independence? First Continental Congress 1774; Suffolk Resolves; Continental Association Shots Heard Around the World Battle of Lexington and Concord 1775; minutemen Beginning “The World Over Again” Second Continental Congress 1775; Prohibitory Act; Thomas Paine & Common Sense Declaration of Independence 1776 Fighting for Independence 5.4 WHY did it take eight years of warfare for the Americans to gain independence? What factors neutralized England’s military superiority? Building a Professional Army Continental Army; George Washington
“Times That Try Men’s Souls” Gen. William Howe’s victories and strategy Victory in a Year of Defeat Battle of Saratoga 1777 The French Alliance 1778 Role of the French The Final Campaign War in the South; Yorktown 1781 The Loyalist Dilemma Treaty of Paris 1783 Structure of Colonial Society 5.1 Why did Americans resist parliamentary taxation? • 1760s - optimistic postwar period • Striking ethnic and racial diversity • Young population • 60 percent of population under 21 years old • Relative prosperity • Similar to that of the English Internal Revenue Internal Revenue Tax Gov’t expenses Vote by assembly Stays in/effects colonies Tariff Regulation Parliament Revenue to England Breakdown of Political Trust • 1760 - George III ascended to throne • Aggressive role in government • Upset Whigs by ignoring their role • High turnover among top ministers • Based on king’s personal taste at the time • Instability – bureaucrats who directed colonial affairs not sure what was expected of them • Made narrow decisions or did nothing • King showed little interest in colonies • Parliamentary Sovereignty • English officials assumed that Parliament must have ultimate authority • Superseding any colonial legislation • Colonists did not share this view Little room for compromise No Taxation Without Representation: The American Perspective • Previous colonial role in British empire vague •
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