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phil 230 paper 1

phil 230 paper 1 - 713966879 p 1 Throughout his...

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713966879 p. 1 Throughout his paper, “Computing Machinery and Intelligence”, Alan Turing explains his test for intelligence; the Turing Test. Turing proposes that if a machine can pass his Turing Test, then the machine is unquestionably an intelligent, appropriately sophisticated Physical Symbol System. However, John Searle presents an intriguing criticism, the Chinese Room example, to the Turing Test in “Minds, Brains, and Computers.” Searle’s example has serious implications on Turing’s test and even raises questions of its validity. The Turing Test, also known as the “imitation game”, involves one human, one non- human machine, and one interrogator, a human. All three are in separate rooms and communicate via teleprinter. The interrogator asks both the machine and human questions in a question-answer format in an attempt to figure out which is the human. The questions can be phrased in any form, about any topic, and can be as sophisticated or simple as the interrogator likes. If the interrogator can’t accurately decide which one is human, then the machine has successfully passed the Turing Test and is attributed intelligence in the same way human beings are attributed intelligence. Turing restricts the machines in the test to digital computers, claiming digital computers are the closest to “thinking machines”. A digital computer, or universal computer, is a hypothetical super computer capable of any task of any human programmed computer. Digital computers are sophisticated Physical Symbol Systems (PSS); they manipulate syntactical, not semantical, properties of symbols. The computer has a strict set of rules programmed into it, like a book of rules, and an executive unit where the program is carried out and all symbol manipulation occurs. Because of the digital computer’s programmed nature, we know how the machine works and will understand how it is intelligent. Turing creates this restriction because it may be possible for a machine to pass the test, but whose way of passing is unknown. The
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