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Explore ONLINE!Essential QuestionWhat great shifts in thinking inspired revolutions in politics and the arts worldwide?RevolutionsSweep the WestModule 14VIDEOS, including...Document Based InvestigationsGraphic OrganizersInteractive GamesChart: Bonds that Create a Nation-StateInteractive Map: Unification of Germany,1865–1871In this module you will learn that nationalist revolutions, inspired byEnlightenment ideas, swept through Latin America and Europe.About the painting:From 1791 to 1824,revolutions took place in Haiti, Mexico, andCentral and South America. By 1824, nearly allof Latin America had gained independencefrom European control. One of South America’sgreat liberators was José de San Martín, shown.•Miguel Hidalgo’s Call to Arms•Ludwig Van BeethovenWhat You Will Learn …Lesson 1: Latin American Peoples Win Independence 550The Big IdeaSpurred by discontent and Enlightenment ideas, peoplein Latin America fought colonial rule.Lesson 2: Europe Faces Revolutions 559The Big IdeaLiberal and nationalist uprisings challenged the oldconservative order of Europe.Lesson 3: Nationalism 568The Big IdeaNationalism contributed to the formation of two newnations and a new political order in Europe.Lesson 4: Revolutions in the Arts 576The Big IdeaArtistic and intellectual movements both reflected andfueled changes in Europe during the 1800s.Module 14548
Explore ONLINE!19001800WorldLatin America and EuropeTimeline of Events 1800–19001884–1885Berlin Conference dividesAfrica among European nations.1881Alexander II isassassinated.1815British governmentexiles Napoleon to a remoteisland in the Atlantic.1863Lincoln’s EmancipationProclamation frees enslavedpeople in Confederate states.1869Suez Canal is completed.1810Padre Hidalgo calls forMexican independence.1816Argentina declares itsindependence.1824Spanish colonies inLatin America (called GranColombia) win freedom.1837Louis Daguerre perfectsa method for photography.1848Revolts shake Europe.1861Alexander II frees serfs in Russia.1870Italy unites.1871Wilhelm Ibecomeskaiser of united Germany.1804Napoleon becomesemperor.1804Haiti wins freedom from France.Revolutions Sweep the West549
Latin American PeoplesWin IndependenceLesson 1Setting the StageThe successful American Revolution, the French Revolu-tion, and the Enlightenment changed ideas about whoshould control government. Ideas of liberty, equality,and democratic rule found their way across the seas toEuropean colonies. In Latin America, most of the popu-lation resented the domination of European colonialpowers. The time seemed right for the people who livedthere to sweep away old colonial masters and gain con-trol of the land.Colonial Society DividedIn Latin American colonial society, class dictated people’s placein society and jobs. At the top of Spanish-American societywere thepeninsulares(peh•neen•soo•LAH•rehs), people who hadbeen born in Spain, which is on the Iberian peninsula. Theyformed a tiny percentage of the population. Onlypeninsularescould hold high office in Spanish colonial government.Creoles,Spaniards born in Latin America, were below thepeninsularesin rank. Creoles could not hold high-level political office, butthey could rise as officers in Spanish colonial armies. Togetherthese two groups controlled land, wealth, and power in theSpanish colonies.