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Learning Module 10:Minerals and Multis NotesA.Periodic Table of the Elementsa.Minerals = elementsb.2 major elements in the body:i.Naii.Kc.InorganicB. Mineralsa.Retain identity – cannot be destroyedi.Can leech it out of foods1.Ex: K – water soluble minerala.Cook a potato in lots of water leech out Kb.But haven’t destroyed itc.Still has identity it’s just in the water nowd.So prob not going to get it into your body2.Ex: Vit C – water soluble vitamina.Can leech it out of the foodb.Can also destroy its structureb.Variable Bioavailability:i.Some minerals like zinc, calcium and iron have very low fractional absorption1.Don’t absorb 100%ii.Others like Na – are very absorbable1.Absorb close to 100%c.Nutrient Interactionsi.Binders in foods:1.Bind up w/ certain minerals and decrease their absorptionC.Absorption Charta.Fractional Absorption – not all or nothingi.Percentage that you are absorbingb.Ex: As you absorb calcium – intake up to 400-500i.The percentage that you are absorbing starts to dropc.Calcium absorption is between – 30-45%i.As you increase toward 500 mg amount it drops down to mid-20% rangeD.Minerals in the Human Body Chart (found IN the body - g)a.Macro vs. Microb.This is how much you find IN the bodyc.Macrominerals:
i.Most prevalent mineral in the body:1.Calciuma.Mainly bc it’s found in the bonesii.2ndmost prevalent mineral in the body:1.Phosphorusa.Works w/ calcium in hydroxyapatite of bonesiii.3rdmost prevalent mineral in the body:1.Magnesiuma.Part of bone structured.Trace Minerals (Microminerals):i.Ironii.Manganeseiii.Copperiv.Iodine1.All found in body in smaller amounts2.Need smaller amounts from foodsE.Macro/Micro Minerals Chart (how much you NEED in the body - mg)a.Macro - NEED 100 mg or more per dayb.Micro - NEED <100 mg per dayF.Calciuma.Most abundant mineral in the body!!!i.Found in bones and teeth (99%)ii.Found in bloodstream (1%)1.Roles in:a.Sending nerve messagesb.Blood clottingc.Regulation of heart beat2.Blood level of calcium – net absorption (~30%)iii.RDA recommendations take into account how bioavailable/absorbable a nutrient is1.If only need 100mg of Ca a daya.It’s already taking into account that you’re only absorbing roughly 35% of the Ca that you have to get2.Ex: Body only needs about 350-400mg of Ca a daya.Since you only absorb ~35% - you gotta get ~1000mgG.Picture of Bonesa.Deficiency symptom of Ca:i.Osteoporosis (low bone density)1.Osteoclasts – chew away at old bonea.In overdrive and chew away a lot of bone2.Osteoblasts – come in and lay down new boneH.Calcium In vs. Calcium Outa.Where do we get it?b.What does it do?I.Calcium Homeostasis
a.Blood level of calcium – keeping it in right range – tightly controlledb.Adequate intake of Ca rich foods:i.Blood Ca remains normalc.Dietary deficiency of blood Ca:i.Blood Ca remains normald.Normal either way:i.Body doesn’t rely on you to get enough Ca to maintain this blood level which is necessary for lifee.