Demographic Perspectives on Aging • Demography of an “aging” society • How is aging of the population measured? – Fertility – defined as the number of children the average woman bears in her lifetime) – Mortality – death rates per 100,000 in a given age group – Fertility + Mortality produce an age structure • Age structures can also be affected by very large birth cohorts • • The aged dependency ratio • Implications of the dependency ratio – Too few working age people to support dependents • Strains on social security systems • “sandwich” phenomenon – Money taken away from children’s services – Increasing health costs per capita – Political issues such as changes in tax structure; immigration policies – Social issues: decline in energy, creativity; changes in leisure industries • Life expectancy – The median number of years a member of a birth cohort or birth year is expected to live – Very sensitive to infant mortality
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birth cohorts Population, dependency ratio Implications, industries Life expectancy