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Lecture 19: Fertility and Family PlanningFertility Rateo3 ways to calculate (none of those affected by population)General fertility rate (일반출산률)Births per 1000 womenaffected by change in the age distribution among women of childbearing age 특정1년간의총출생아수를해당연도의15~49세(가임기간) 여자연앙인구로나눈수치를1,000분율로나타낸것이다Complete fertility ratelifetime births per woman ages 40-44summarizes childbearing patterns from recent decades but cannotprovide direct insights into the fertility behaviors of younger women todayTotal Fertility rateestimate of lifetime fertility, based upon present fertility patternsused to characterize “replacement fertility” Replacement fertility is the total fertility rate at which women give birth to enough babies to sustain population levels.If there were no mortality in the female population from birth to the end of the childbearing years, the replacement level of TFR would be very close to 2.0.taking recent trends and project them out1980, 1.84 children: assumption. Fertility Rates in the USoGeneral fertility rate 2013: 62.5 births/1000 womenoComplete fertility rate 2012: 2.0 (on average) oTotal fertility rate 2013: 1.85Replacement rate would be 2.08 “Replacement level fertility” is the total fertility rate—the average number of children born per woman—at
which a population replaces itself from one generation to the next, without migration.oU.S. fertility rate hits all time low in 2013, 2006 and 1976 why was there baby boom? after WWII, there was an optimistic lifestyle that causes to have more baby (나라가잘살게됨) huge boom in babyall at once they had baby1950-60s
oChildbearing: Total fertility ratesLatino - highest more religious → higher fertility rate U.S. 1.85 (light blue color on the map) singapore has the lower than 1 small island nations have the lower fertility ratetaiwan and hong kong slight above 1 Pregnancy in the U.S. oapproximately 6.3 million births annually o40% are to unmarried women (increased from 6% in 1960, doubled since 1980)o~Half are unintended (more than 80% of teen pregnancy is unintended) delays in initiating prenatal care (folic acid, substance use) reduced likelihood of breastfeedingincreased risk of maternal depression (산후우울증등등) increased risk of physical violence during pregnancy
oThe U.S. unintended pregnancy rate is at its lowestin 30 years large disparities by income remain lower the income higher unintended pregnancy Factors that affect fertility rates oDistal determinants (social, economic factors) → proximate determinants → Fertility Distal determinants: social, economic and environmental factors owomen’s statusEducation, traditional age at marriage, labor force participation oPolitical climate and social policiesfederal policies