HDF EXAM3 .docx - Lecture 19 Fertility and Family Planning Fertility Rate o 3 ways to calculate(none of those affected by population General fertility

HDF EXAM3 .docx - Lecture 19 Fertility and Family Planning...

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Lecture 19: Fertility and Family Planning Fertility Rate o 3 ways to calculate (none of those affected by population) General fertility rate ( ) Births per 1000 women affected by change in the age distribution among women of childbearing age 특정 1 년간의 총출생아 수를 해당 연도의 15~49 ( 가임 기간 ) 여자 연앙인구로 나눈 수치를 1,000 분율로 나타낸 것이다 Complete fertility rate lifetime births per woman ages 40-44 summarizes childbearing patterns from recent decades but cannot provide direct insights into the fertility behaviors of younger women today Total Fertility rate estimate of lifetime fertility, based upon present fertility patterns used to characterize “replacement fertility” Replacement fertility is the total fertility rate at which women give birth to enough babies to sustain population levels. If there were no mortality in the female population from birth to the end of the childbearing years, the replacement level of TFR would be very close to 2.0. taking recent trends and project them out 1980, 1.84 children: assumption. Fertility Rates in the US o General fertility rate 2013: 62.5 births/1000 women o Complete fertility rate 2012: 2.0 (on average) o Total fertility rate 2013: 1.85 Replacement rate would be 2.08 “Replacement level fertility” is the total fertility rate— the average number of children born per woman—at
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which a population replaces itself from one generation to the next, without migration. o U.S. fertility rate hits all time low in 2013, 2006 and 1976 why was there baby boom? after WWII, there was an optimistic lifestyle that causes to have more baby ( ) huge boom in baby all at once they had baby 1950-60s
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o Childbearing: Total fertility rates Latino - highest more religious → higher fertility rate U.S. 1.85 (light blue color on the map) singapore has the lower than 1 small island nations have the lower fertility rate taiwan and hong kong slight above 1 Pregnancy in the U.S. o approximately 6.3 million births annually o 40% are to unmarried women (increased from 6% in 1960, doubled since 1980) o ~Half are unintended (more than 80% of teen pregnancy is unintended) delays in initiating prenatal care (folic acid, substance use) reduced likelihood of breastfeeding increased risk of maternal depression ( ) increased risk of physical violence during pregnancy
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o The U.S. unintended pregnancy rate is at its lowest in 30 years large disparities by income remain lower the income higher unintended pregnancy Factors that affect fertility rates o Distal determinants (social, economic factors) proximate determinants → Fertility Distal determinants: social, economic and environmental factors o women’s status Education, traditional age at marriage, labor force participation o Political climate and social policies federal policies
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